Environment Department Papers
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These discussion papers are produced primarily by the Environment Department, on occasion jointly with other departments. Papers in this series are not formal publications of the World Bank. They are circulated to encourage thought and discussion. The use and citation of this paper should take this into account. The views expressed are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the World Bank.
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Watershed Development in India : An Approach Evolving through Experience(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-03) Symle, Jim ; Lobo, Crispino ; Milne, Grant ; Williams, MelissaThis report analyses the experiences and lessons from three World Bank-Supported watershed development projects in the Indian states of Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand.5 The primary reason for the analysis was to guide the development and execution of new watershed programs in India, including new Bank-supported state-level operations in Uttarakhand and Karnataka, and a proposed national project now under preparation. Accordingly, it was important to deepen the knowledge base about large-scale, community-led watershed development in order to share that knowledge with key stakeholders both inside and outside of the World Bank. Another important reason was the immediate and growing concern over water resources and their management in India and the question of how well watershed development programs internalize these concerns. A third impetus was the nexus between rural poverty and rainfed agriculture and the important role that watershed development programs are to fulfill in the development of sustainable rural livelihoods.
What is the Cost of a Bowl of Rice? : The Impact of Sri Lanka's Current Trade and Price Policies on the Incentive Framework for Agriculture(Washington, DC, 2013-10-01) World BankSince 2004, Sri Lanka has pursued inward looking policies that have encouraged import substitution, especially with respect to agricultural commodities. This report provides empirical evidence to inform the policy dialogue over the impact of current trade and price policies on the incentive framework for agriculture in Sri Lanka. This analysis provides a quantitative assessments of: (1) the level of support to farmers producing import-competing products; (2) the degree to which final consumers are indirectly taxed by those policies; (3) the extent to which agricultural exports are taxed; (4) the contribution of trade policy to government revenue through tariffs on imports and taxes on exports; (5) an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the current fertilizer subsidy scheme; and (6) a better understanding of the web of income transfers between producers, consumers, and government accounts. The report is structured as follows: section one gives introduction. Section two gives overview of the current (2009-11) import and export policy framework and a brief analysis of government revenues and expenditures for agriculture. Section three reviews the data sources and methods used in calculating the degree of protection, and summary statistics on the degree of protection for 10 agricultural commodities. Section four looks closely at the cost-effectiveness of fertilizer subsidies, which represent a large share of the government agriculture budget. Section five focuses on how agricultural trade policies influence income distribution, particularly among different groups of rice producers. The last section recapitulates the main findings and highlights their implications, with an emphasis on the often implicit and unintended income transfers among producers, consumers, and the government.
Country Assistance Strategies and the Environment(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2001-07) Shyamsundar, Priya ; Hamilton, Kirk ; Segnestam, Lisa ; Sarraf, Maria ; Frankhauser, S.This report is the outcome of a Country Assistance Strategy and Environment program that was started and aimed to identify practical constraints to incorporating environmental concerns into CASs and to develop a logical framework for doing so. The analysis is based on two key efforts: a review of CASs undertaken in fiscal year 1999, and five participatory case studies of on-going CASs. The report presents a set of practical actions to improve the environmental quality of CASs based on the learning that emerged from the case studies and the environmental review: 1) integrating environmental considerations into country activities; 2) linking environmental efforts to poverty reduction; 3) strengthening the information base; and 4) improving the CAS process. After the introduction, Chapter 2 presents a review of fiscal year 1999 CASs and ranks them according to their treatment of environmental issues. Regional differences are discussed, best practices examined, and recommendations made for future CASs. The methodology used for the review is described in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 discusses the CAS process in five countries - Azerbaijan, Dominican Republic, Pakistan, Tunisia, and Zambia. The chapter then examines practical challenges to mainstreaming environmental issues. The last chapter identifies lessons learned and presents recommendations.
Environmental Costs of Fossil Fuels : A Rapid Assessment Method with Application to Six Cities(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2000-10) Lvovsky, Kseniya ; Hughes, Gordon ; Maddison, David ; Ostro, Bart ; Pearce, DavidAmong the key external effects of fossil fuel contribution are urban air pollution, and changes in global climate. A study of six cities in developing countries, and transition economies estimates the magnitude of these effects, and, examines how various fuels, and pollution sources contribute to health damages, and other environmental costs. The study develops a simple, but robust method for rapid assessment of these damages. By linking the damage to a particular fuel use, or pollution source, the method makes possible cost-benefit analysis of pollution abatement measures. The findings show very high levels of environmental damage, and reveal large sectoral differences. By far the greatest share of the total damage, is that to human health, from exposure to ambient particulates, caused mainly by small pollution sources, such as vehicles, and household stoves. Large industries, and power plants account for a smaller proportion of health damage, but are the major contributors to carbon dioxide emissions, which have an impact on global climate. The complex relationships between pollution sources, and environmental effects, highlight the need for a skillful mix of policy instruments, built on rigorous analysis. The damage assessment method proposed herein, provides a useful analytical tool, to be easily applied to other urban areas.