Development Policy Review
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République de Côte d’Ivoire 2021-2030 - Sustaining High, Inclusive, and Resilient Growth Post COVID-19: A World Bank Group Input to the 2030 Development Strategy(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09-23) World BankThis report, initiated at the request of His Excellency President Alassane Ouattara to Hafez M. H. Ghanem, the World Bank Group Regional Vice President for Eastern and Southern Africa, is the first country application of the new regional strategy, Supporting Africa’s Transformation. Albert Zeufack, the Chief Economist of the World Bank Group Africa Region, led a team to synthesize knowledge and experience from Côte d’Ivoire and across the world. The report incorporates the perspective of the new International Development Association agenda, Jobs and Economic Transformation, and addresses three operational objectives for Côte d’Ivoire: create sustainable and inclusive growth by maintaining macroeconomic stability, fighting corruption, advancing digital transformation, and maximizing private finance; strengthen human capital by empowering women, reducing child mortality and stunting, and improving education, health, and social protection; build resilience against fragility and climate change. The National Development Plan 2016-20 consolidated promarket reforms and reaffirmed the ambition to reach upper-middle-income status. Côte d’Ivoire is embarking on a strategy to sustain strong gross domestic product (GDP) growth through 2030 while rapidly reducing poverty. Côte d’Ivoire’s aspiration of becoming an emerging market economy with low levels of poverty requires a long period of strong and inclusive growth. The report analyzes growth trajectories and identifies the investments needed to achieve and sustain desired levels of growth, along with the corresponding financing needs. It discusses the opportunities presented by the country’s surplus labor, young population, and huge diversification potential.
Vietnam Development Report 2019: Connecting Vietnam for Growth and Shared Prosperity(Hanoi: Hong Duc Publishing, 2019-12) World Bank GroupGlobally, Vietnam is among the most open economies with a trade-to-GDP ratio of 190 percent in 2018. Through the removal of both tariff and non-tariff barriers and fulfilling its commitment in several regional trade agreements, the country has made remarkable achievements in trade liberalization. Vietnam’s major trade partners located in East Asia, North America, and Europe are reached mostly by sea or air. Trade with bordering neighbors is limited and thus trade across border-crossing points is minimal except for northern borders with China, which has seen growth in recent years. The country’s trade flows are concentrated at twelve of its 48 border gates—two airports, five seaports and five border crossing points—which collectively handled 86 percent of total trade value in 2016.1 As the trade grows, congestion at and near these international gateways and border-crossing points has also increased. In addition to the current major trade partners, various regional trade relations and connectivity initiatives are relevant to Vietnam, including with Southeast Asian neighbors, and South Asia—particularly India—over land, given the rapidly growing trade relationships. In the meantime, Vietnam’s transport network has undergone a significant expansion over the past decades. The most remarkable development in network expansion has occurred in the road sector. As of 2016 the total length of the road network, excluding village roads, reached over 300,000 km, including about 1,000 km of expressways—a fully access-controlled toll road system. Vietnam is endowed with an extensive network of natural waterways, including nearly 16,000 km of managed navigable routes carrying significant traffic around the Red River Delta and Mekong Delta areas. However, only about 2,600 km of the waterways can reliably handle barges greater than 300 deadweight tons, with rudimentary terminal infrastructure at most of its numerous river ports. Vietnam's century-old railway system is mostly single-tracked and non-electrified, which has remained unchanged over the past decades with very limited capital investments
Reinvigorating Growth in Resource-Rich Sub-Saharan Africa(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-09) Izvorski, Ivailo ; Coulibaly, Souleymane ; Doumbia, Djeneba ; Izvorski, IvailoThe strong economic performance of Sub-Saharan Africa’s resource-rich countries since the start of the 21st century has been celebrated as a return to more buoyant growth and renewed convergence with the advanced economies.Despite the recent progress in improving living standards and reducing poverty, achieving high and sustainable growth continues to be the main challenge for policymakers.Rwanda and Ethiopia have led Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in terms of per-capita growth since 2000, growing faster than South Asia. However, the gap between the resource-rich countries of Africa with East Asia and the Pacific (EAP), SAR, and the advanced economies has widened since 2010, underlining the difficulty of accelerating growth.Africa has often been portrayed as a continent of boundless natural riches that have helped pull the whole subcontinent forward. Indeed, resource-rich Africa accounts for a dominant part of SSA’s economy. Resource-rich SSA accounts for 70 percent of both the subcontinent’s GDP and physical capital, 60 percent of its natural capital, and nearly 40 percent of its population. For the continent in aggregate and in per capita terms, however, natural resources are just a bit higher than in the South Asia Region (SAR) and lag all other developing regions.One way of thinking of strengthening economic growth depends on more exploration and development of natural resources that should help increase the continent’s natural wealth, as has happened in many other developing regions.More importantly, durable prosperity in resource-rich Africa depends on building up the assets, or components of overall wealth, that are in relatively short supply. In recent years, the literature has started to focus on assets and assets diversification as a path to development, and the World Bank has led in this area. In this report, we emphasize the two complementary types of assets that Africa’s resource-rich countries need to build up to accelerate growth: one is within national borders and the other across borders.
Pacific Possible: Long-term Economic Opportunities and Challenges for Pacific Island Countries(Washington, DC, 2017-08) World BankPacific Possible is a program of research and dialogue focusing on long term economic growth perspectives of Pacific Island Countries. It analyzes the major transformational economic opportunities and challenges which include tourism, labor mobility, ICT, oceanic tuna fisheries, deep sea minerals, climate change and natural disasters, and non-communicable diseases. This report summarizes and synthesizes research undertaken on these topics. Detailed background papers on these topics are also available as part of the Pacific Possible series.