Development Policy Review

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    République de Côte d’Ivoire 2021-2030 - Sustaining High, Inclusive, and Resilient Growth Post COVID-19: A World Bank Group Input to the 2030 Development Strategy
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09-23) World Bank
    This report, initiated at the request of His Excellency President Alassane Ouattara to Hafez M. H. Ghanem, the World Bank Group Regional Vice President for Eastern and Southern Africa, is the first country application of the new regional strategy, Supporting Africa’s Transformation. Albert Zeufack, the Chief Economist of the World Bank Group Africa Region, led a team to synthesize knowledge and experience from Côte d’Ivoire and across the world. The report incorporates the perspective of the new International Development Association agenda, Jobs and Economic Transformation, and addresses three operational objectives for Côte d’Ivoire: create sustainable and inclusive growth by maintaining macroeconomic stability, fighting corruption, advancing digital transformation, and maximizing private finance; strengthen human capital by empowering women, reducing child mortality and stunting, and improving education, health, and social protection; build resilience against fragility and climate change. The National Development Plan 2016-20 consolidated promarket reforms and reaffirmed the ambition to reach upper-middle-income status. Côte d’Ivoire is embarking on a strategy to sustain strong gross domestic product (GDP) growth through 2030 while rapidly reducing poverty. Côte d’Ivoire’s aspiration of becoming an emerging market economy with low levels of poverty requires a long period of strong and inclusive growth. The report analyzes growth trajectories and identifies the investments needed to achieve and sustain desired levels of growth, along with the corresponding financing needs. It discusses the opportunities presented by the country’s surplus labor, young population, and huge diversification potential.
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    Pacific Possible: Long-term Economic Opportunities and Challenges for Pacific Island Countries
    (Washington, DC, 2017-08) World Bank
    Pacific Possible is a program of research and dialogue focusing on long term economic growth perspectives of Pacific Island Countries. It analyzes the major transformational economic opportunities and challenges which include tourism, labor mobility, ICT, oceanic tuna fisheries, deep sea minerals, climate change and natural disasters, and non-communicable diseases. This report summarizes and synthesizes research undertaken on these topics. Detailed background papers on these topics are also available as part of the Pacific Possible series.
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    The Unfinished Revolution : Bringing Opportunity, Good Jobs and Greater Wealth to All Tunisians
    (Washington, DC, 2014-05-24) World Bank
    Until 2010 Tunisia appeared to be doing well and was heralded by the World Bank and the IMF as a role model for other developing countries, and the World Economic Forum repeatedly ranked Tunisia as the most competitive economy in Africa. Yet, the Tunisian model had serious flaws. Inadequate creation of jobs, notably for university graduates, and deep regional disparities were a source of increasing frustration across the country in the run up to the January 2011 Revolution. This development policy review shows that, in contrast to the façade often presented by the former regime, Tunisia's economic environment was and remains deeply deficient. The review highlights an economy that has remained frozen in low-value added activities and where firms are stagnating in terms of productivity and jobs creation. The review argues that Tunisian prosperity has been held back by policies that have reduced the country s overall economic performance. This poor performance results from extensive barriers to entry and market restrictions coupled with a heavy business regulations and a poorly functioning financial system, have resulted in economic stagnation. Economic policies have exacerbated cronyism and rent-seeking, allowing under-performing firms to survive, regardless of their productivity. in order to fulfill its economic potential, Tunisia needs to create a level playing field by opening up the economy and removing Tunisia's three dualisms, namely the onshore-offshore division, the dichotomy between the coast and the interior, and the segmentation of the labor market. A strong social policy is also necessary, of course, and should be designed to accompany private sector-led growth. Tunisia can capitalize on a strong competitive advantage to export wage-intensive goods, expand its export of services, and unleash the potential of agriculture, to the benefit of small businesses, young graduates, and farmers in Tunisia's long-neglected interior regions. Realizing these benefits will require improving the investment climate, rationalizing regulations, and developing more equitable development policies that benefit all of Tunisia's regions. The Unfinished Revolution is a challenge for policymakers to rethink Tunisia's economic development model, to question existing assumptions, and to dare to think big about policy reforms which can accelerate growth and shared prosperity, create quality jobs and promote regional development.
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    Indonesia : Avoiding the Trap
    (Jakarta, 2014-05) World Bank
    Within the next two decades Indonesia aspires to generate prosperity, avoid a middle-income trap and leave no one behind as it tries to catch up with high-income economies. These are ambitious goals. Realizing them requires sustained high growth and job creation, as well as reduced inequality. Can Indonesia achieve them? This report argues that the country has the potential to rise and become more prosperous and equitable. But the risk of 'floating in the middle' is real. Which pathway the economy will take depends on: (i) the adoption of a growth strategy that unleashes the productivity potential of the economy; and (ii) consistent implementation of a few, long-standing, high-priority structural reforms to boost growth and share prosperity more widely. Indonesia is fortunate to have options in financing these reforms without threatening its long-term fiscal outlook. The difficulties lie in getting the reforms implemented in a complex institutional and decentralized framework. But Indonesia cannot afford hard to not try harder. The costs of complacency, and the rewards for action, are too high.
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    Indonesia - Avoiding the Trap : Development Policy Review 2014
    (Washington, DC, 2014-03) World Bank
    Within the next two decades Indonesia aspires to generate prosperity, avoid a middle-income trap, and leave no one behind as it tries to catch up with high-income economies. Can Indonesia achieve them? This report argues that the country has the potential to rise and become more prosperous and equitable. But the risk of floating in the middle is real. Which pathway the economy will take depends on: (i) the adoption of a growth strategy that unleashes the productivity potential of the economy; and (ii) consistent implementation of a few, long-standing, high-priority structural reforms to boost growth and share prosperity more widely. Indonesia is fortunate to have options in financing these reforms without threatening its long-term fiscal outlook. The difficulties lie in getting the reforms implemented in a complex institutional and decentralized framework. The report identifies the reforms of institutions and processes that govern the functioning of the state as critical for unleashing the country's development potential. The report provides an analytical underpinning for the Bank's country partnership strategy 2009-14 and shapes the Bank's support to the government's rencana pembangunan jangka menengah nasional (RPJMN) 2010-2014.
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    Bridging the Development Gap: ASEAN Equitable Development Monitor 2014
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014) World Bank ; ASEAN
    Since the Asian Financial Crisis in the late 1990s and through the Global Financial Crisis of the last decade, commendable progress has been made by the member states of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in improving economic and human development outcomes both within each country and across countries. Since 1997, the economies of the poorest countries in the ASEAN, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Vietnam, have generally grown faster than the richer economies, which has reduced gaps in per capita incomes. Overall, child mortality rates have been cut by two-thirds across the ASEAN. And significant reductions have occurred even in some of the poorer member countries such as Cambodia and Lao PDR. However, this report The ASEAN Equitable Development Monitor (henceforth referred to as The Monitor), also shows that much remains to be done to ensure that the poorest members of the ASEAN community, within countries and across countries, are not left behind as the countries of the ASEAN integrate further. In both policies and development outcomes, differences across the countries of the ASEAN remain large. In this context, the monitor is designed to facilitate further discussion on policies and programs that can promote inclusive growth within ASEAN member countries and across the ASEAN community. It presents a number of indicators that are intended to provide a summary of development outcomes across and within the ten ASEAN countries and over time. On this basis, the monitor is intended to help policymakers in ASEAN member states to identify areas of concerns and prioritize national and regional interventions. The monitor tracks indicators across two broad sets of development outcomes and policies: (i) economic development; and (ii) human development.
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    Republic of Moldova : Policy Priorities for Private Sector Development
    (Washington, DC, 2013-06) World Bank
    The Government of Moldova is seeking to change the country's development paradigm and build an export-oriented economy characterized by investment, innovation, and competitiveness, following a decade of 'jobless growth'. This report focuses on improvements that will be needed to move Moldova to the next stage of development as envisioned in the Moldova 2020 strategy; however, reforms over the past decade also deserve acknowledgment. Improving the business environment is an especially important task, given Moldova's low levels of natural resources and small internal market. This study aims to identify the most pressing problems in the business environment that are adversely affecting Moldovan companies' productivity and competitiveness, and to present recommendations that would help remove these obstacles. The analysis is based on a review of existing reports; interviews with government officials, private sector associations, a sample of businesses, and some subject matter experts; as well as original research on access to finance. This study has identified that the following aspects of doing business are the most problematic: customs administration; tax administration; business regulation, consisting of licenses, authorizations, permits, and inspections; the competition framework; and access to finance. This report presents short-term (2013-2014) and longer-term (2015-2017) recommendations in each of the five priority areas.
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    Republic of Moldova Enterprise Access to Finance : Background Note
    (Washington, DC, 2013-06) World Bank
    The Government of Moldova is seeking to change the country's development paradigm and build an export-oriented economy characterized by investment, innovation, and competitiveness, following a decade of 'jobless growth'. This report focuses on improvements that will be needed to move Moldova to the next stage of development as envisioned in the Moldova 2020 strategy; however, reforms over the past decade also deserve acknowledgment. Improving the business environment is an especially important task, given Moldova's low levels of natural resources and small internal market. This study aims to identify the most pressing problems in the business environment that are adversely affecting Moldovan companies' productivity and competitiveness, and to present recommendations that would help remove these obstacles. The analysis is based on a review of existing reports; interviews with government officials, private sector associations, a sample of businesses, and some subject matter experts; as well as original research on access to finance. This study has identified that the following aspects of doing business are the most problematic: customs administration; tax administration; business regulation, consisting of licenses, authorizations, permits, and inspections; the competition framework; and access to finance. This report presents short-term (2013-2014) and longer-term (2015-2017) recommendations in each of the five priority areas.
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    Botswana Development Policy Review: An Agenda for Competitiveness and Diversification
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-09) World Bank
    Botswana has been one of the most successful countries in the developing world over the last 40 years by many measures. Incomes have grown at a sustained pace, poverty has fallen, and the citizenry has become more educated. To be sure, poverty and income inequalities remain a problem, but rising standards of living have meant a better life for this generation of Batswana than any before it. The question facing the country leadership is whether this commendable performance can be sustained into the next generation. There are clouds on the horizon that cannot be ignored. Diamond earnings, the life blood of decades of prosperity, have flattened out. In per capita terms they are falling. Moreover, because revenues from diamonds going to the public sector have been falling for more than a decade, a growth model predicated upon an ever expanding state presence is not viable. Diamond earnings accruing to the state for subsequent redistribution have peaked. Employment and wages in the public sector have reached their natural limits as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP); recycling revenues from mining into the private sector, either directly or through the financial sector, has been inefficient with low social returns; and redistributive mechanisms to support social safety nets are also likely be approaching their limits. The country confronts the challenge of looking for new sources of growth outside of government.
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    Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan - Development Policy Review : Improving Institutions, Fiscal Policies and Structural Reforms for Greater Growth Resilience and Sustained Job Creation (Vol. 1 of 2)
    (Washington, DC, 2012-06) World Bank
    Jordan's quest for long-term, inclusive and sustainable growth has remained largely elusive. By the Growth and Development Commission's measure of success, namely, an average growth rate of 7 percent over 30 years, Jordan's growth record cannot be dubbed 'successful'. This Development Policy Review (DPR) shows that sustaining growth and reducing unemployment is possible: Jordan has a strong human capital base, a large endowment in engineers, doctors, accountants, Information Technology (IT) specialists and a substantial highly-skilled diaspora (500,000 educated Jordanians abroad, 8 percent of the population). Furthermore, the market-oriented reforms of the early 2000s have made Jordan one of the most open economies in the Middle East and North Africa Region and have led to the emergence of dynamic non-traditional sectors (e.g., information and communication technologies, health tourism and business services). What is missing are: (i) an adequate and stable institutional framework for policymaking and long-term business development; (ii) good fiscal policies to manage shocks and maintain macroeconomic stability; good institutions and macroeconomic stability were identified by the growth commission as two of the five common characteristics of successful growth experiences; and (iii) further growth-enhancing structural reforms.