Items in this collection
Green Public Procurement: An Overview of Green Reforms in Country Procurement Systems
2021-11-04, World Bank
This report provides an overview of international experience in the implementation of Green Public Procurement (GPP). It focuses on the institutional framework that is needed to support the mainstreaming of GPP practices across government. The intention is to equip practitioners with a broad understanding of the issues they need to consider in the design and implementation of GPP reforms. The report draws on a wide range of country examples. It provides links to handbooks and tools for practitioners.
World Bank Group Sanctions Board Law Digest 2019
2020, World Bank Group Sanctions Board
This edition of the Law Digest for the World Bank Group's Sanctions Board presents structured summaries of the Sanctions Board's precedent as set out through more than 100 decisions issued since 2007. The Law Digest also includes key data relating to the work of the Sanctions Board and the World Bank Group's larger sanctions system. Themes covered in this digest include the scope of the Sanctions Board's authority, various types of procedural and evidentiary questions in sanctions proceedings, and the Sanctions Board's overall analysis of the allegations of fraud, corruption, collusion, and obstruction in projects supported by the World Bank Group that form the core of individual sanctions cases.
Nepal : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap
2007-10, World Bank
The assessment focused on the degree of readiness of Government of Nepal's (GoN's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from a traditional paper-based, manual procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). Some 20 public and private sector organizations, involved in a wide range of functions that relate to public procurement, provided comment on the degree of readiness of nine key components related to e-GP: leadership, human resource planning, procurement planning and management, procurement policy, legislation and regulation, Internet and electronic infrastructure, standards, private sector integration, and current e-GP systems and initiatives. The assessment found: adequate evidence that an e-Tendering system is in place but is little used; some evidence that procurement legislation and procurement planning is in place and being supported, and that some procurement training has been conducted; and limited evidence that leadership, human resource planning, procurement management, regulation, and Internet infrastructure services are in place and being supported. The Roadmap sets out the features for a comprehensive e-GP service including e-Tendering, e-Purchasing, e-Reverse Auctioning, and a Procurement Information and Management System.
Econometric Analysis of Framework Agreements in Brazil and Colombia
2021-06, World Bank
Procurement of commonly used items is a challenge for government agencies. If the items are repeatedly purchased in one-off fashion, so that the total volume is significant, there may be potential problems like loss of economy of scale, loss of efficiency, lower competition, and no long-term partnership with suppliers. Framework agreements (FAs) have emerged as a potential solution for the issues. Many countries (particularly in Americas and Europe) have used FAs successfully, though the use of FAs by countries outside these regions is still very low. Hence there is tremendous potential for scaling-up the use of FAs in developing countries. This study uses public procurement data from Brazil and Colombia, two major users of FAs. The subsequent chapters will describe the data used for the analysis, the methodology, and the findings. The country contexts, designs of FAs, available data and research questions vary across Brazil and Colombia, and therefore the empirical findings are not comparable between these two countries. For each country case, the analysis provides insights on the benefits and costs of using FAs and useful lessons that can be informative for other countries that are considering adopting or strengthening the use of FAs with similar design. Chapter one gives introduction. Chapters two and three cover data analytics from Brazil and Colombia respectively. Additionally, following annexures are part of this report: annexure-A: a brief introduction to regression analysis; annexure-B: supporting data and information - Brazil; and annexure-C: supporting data and information - Colombia.
Preliminary Analysis: The Public Procurement Monitoring System of Montenegro
2017-06-30, World Bank
Montenegro is currently in the process of modernizing and restructuring its public procurement system, not only with a view to bringing its procurement system in line with international best practices and complete its accession requirements to enter the EU, but also to constructing more efficient and competitive public procurement, that will enable optimization of results. In order to guarantee that significant improvements are built into the procurement system, the Government of Montenegro has taken several steps to tackle its shortcomings, namely by devising strategies for the development of the procurement system along with action plans that establish specific measures and goals and respective timeframes for completion and tracking the implementation of such measures. The assessments conducted by external entities to the Government of Montenegro have shown that such strategies have been productive in addressing issues in the public procurement system of Montenegro and showcase a steady evolution towards better procurement practices. The analyses introduced by this methodology will most definitely concentrate on performance compliance indicators. These will allow for a more quantitative-based approach to monitoring of the public procurement practices in Montenegro, introducing a less formal concept of monitoring, which is currently restricted to legal and regulatory compliance and emphasizes formal and administrative aspects of procurement. Analyzing and improving the system of procurement is entirely dependent on data available and the analysis of the data for gathering business intelligence and increase productivity of all entities in the system. To this end, guidelines and key performance indicators (KPIs) on how to improve the monitoring, auditing and reporting mechanisms will be introduced. This analysis will also include the benchmarking of the 2015 annual report by the PPA, where monitoring will be assessed in terms of compliance with proposed targets and changes verified up to this point.
Kosovo : Operational Procurement Review
2004-06, World Bank
This Operational Procurement Report (OPR) provides an assessment of the public-sector procurement system in Kosovo, including that on the legislative framework, the responsibilities and capacity of the institutions entrusted with regulatory and review powers, the efficacy of current procurement practices, and on the environment. The report makes recommendations to bring about legislative, institutional and procedural improvements in the conduct of public procurement, and to bolster the capacity of public-sector institutions to conduct procurement. The report also examines the performance of procurement in projects financed by the Bank, assesses the fiduciary risk to Bank funds from procurement operations in Kosovo, and makes recommendations for the design of procurement arrangements on new Bank-financed projects, and for future supervision of procurement to mitigate that risk. Among the various report recommendations, outlined are the enactment of a transitional legal instrument and completion of the legislative framework for public procurement. Furthermore, greater transparency and accountability of public officials conducting procurement transactions should be ensured, while technical capacity for public procurement should be built within the public sector. Most importantly, over the medium term, the new Law on Public Procurement should be amended.
Strengthening Infrastructure Governance for Investment and Service Delivery in Panama
2020-06-24, World Bank
Global evidence suggests better infrastructure governance results in more efficient spending and better growth outcomes at the national and subnational levels of government. Several studies (International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2015; OECD, 2015; World Bank 2014; OECD, 2013a) demonstrate that improvements in infrastructure governance can lead to substantial efficiency enhancements and enhanced infrastructure productivity over the life of the asset. Conversely, poor governance is a major reason why infrastructure projects fail to meet their timeframe, budget, and service delivery objectives. This report assesses the governance of the infrastructure sectors in Panama. Building on a dedicated infrastructure governance framework (see Section II), the report looks at the sector specific arrangements in electricity and water as well as the cross-cutting framework for infrastructure planning, procurement and delivery including for PPPs. The main recommendations of the report are presented in Section I below. Aimed at addressing Panama’s infrastructure governance bottlenecks, the recommendations specify the suggested timeline and priority.
Procurement and Service Delivery : An Overview of Efforts to Improve Governance of Public Procurement at Local Levels in South Asia
2009-11-01, World Bank
Over the past decade, the overly centralized governance structures commonly found across South Asia have begun to change, with program and fiscal responsibility being devolved to local level government authorities and community-based organizations. This has led to greater participation of ordinary citizens in governance and public decision-making. The move to localize decision-making creates enormous opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of public spending since it creates the potential for establishing direct accountability of governance mechanisms to citizens. It also raises a number of significant challenges in ensuring that public funds are spent effectively at the local level, and provokes important new questions regarding the manner by which governments can maintain oversight over the quality of assets. This paper provides an overview of the activities supported under the project, with the aim of contributing to a broader perspective on improving governance and service delivery at the local level. The paper is divided into three parts. In part one the authors explore the challenges of spending money effectively at the local level, with a special focus on the governance challenges that exist in public procurement. In part two, the authors explore different approaches to addressing those challenges by discussing innovative work that has taken place with the support of the Project in the areas of regulation, contracting, transparency, and accountability. In part three, the authors analyze some broader themes and key questions that remain to be addressed while developing a strategic research and operational agenda around local level procurement.
Peru : Restoring the Multiple Pillars of Old Age Income Security
2004-01-26, World Bank
In this report, the components of a national retirement security system are categorized - as "pillars", or as "tiers" according to their objective. This is in marked contrast to other publications that categorize the branches of a pension system in accordance with who administers them (the public or private sector); how are benefits structured (final-salary defined benefit formula, or defined contributions); or, their financing mechanism (pay-as-you-go, or full funding). Thus, the term "first pillar" or "pillar one" refers to that part of a pension system intended to keep elderly out of poverty; "second pillar" or "pillar two" to that part intended to help individuals smooth consumption over their life-cycle, i.e., to prevent a dramatic fall in income at retirement time; and, "third pillar" or "pillar three" to the instruments, and institutions available on a voluntary basis for workers to increase their income in old age. This report intends to explore, and present policy options to extend formal protection against old age poverty risks, at a fiscally sustainable cost, and aims as well at restoring the multiple pillars of formal old age income security. The report reviews the current pillars of Peru's retirement security system, grown weak, and by and large, has failed to diversify the risks to old-age income. The public branch of the "second pillar" still threatens the Government's fiscal stance, and constrains management of the economy. The private branch is costly, risky and administered by a private oligopoly. The "third pillar" of voluntary savings, and insurance instruments is weak, costly, lacks transparency and fails to complement benefits from the mandatory pillars. The report takes a comprehensive approach in its analysis of Peru's retirement security institutions, and, is divided into five sections. Following this introduction, Section II presents the dimensions of Peru's vulnerability to poverty in old age, by examining the nature of the risks to income from ageing in Peru. The section continues with a look at how well Government administered and/or mandated pension plans are covering these risks. Section III provides the institutional background, reviews reforms to formal social security institutions in the 1990's, and the progress achieved, and, examines the serious problems remaining. Section lV presents an analysis of proposals for reforms to each branch of the retirement security system, while Section V concludes by presenting policy options - some straight forward measures, while others, deeper, more controversial reforms - consistent with meeting the stated objective of extending protection against poverty in old age, in a fiscally, sustainable manner.