Other Procurement Study

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  • Publication
    Green Public Procurement: An Overview of Green Reforms in Country Procurement Systems
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11-04) World Bank
    This report provides an overview of international experience in the implementation of Green Public Procurement (GPP). It focuses on the institutional framework that is needed to support the mainstreaming of GPP practices across government. The intention is to equip practitioners with a broad understanding of the issues they need to consider in the design and implementation of GPP reforms. The report draws on a wide range of country examples. It provides links to handbooks and tools for practitioners.
  • Publication
    Econometric Analysis of Framework Agreements in Brazil and Colombia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World Bank
    Procurement of commonly used items is a challenge for government agencies. If the items are repeatedly purchased in one-off fashion, so that the total volume is significant, there may be potential problems like loss of economy of scale, loss of efficiency, lower competition, and no long-term partnership with suppliers. Framework agreements (FAs) have emerged as a potential solution for the issues. Many countries (particularly in Americas and Europe) have used FAs successfully, though the use of FAs by countries outside these regions is still very low. Hence there is tremendous potential for scaling-up the use of FAs in developing countries. This study uses public procurement data from Brazil and Colombia, two major users of FAs. The subsequent chapters will describe the data used for the analysis, the methodology, and the findings. The country contexts, designs of FAs, available data and research questions vary across Brazil and Colombia, and therefore the empirical findings are not comparable between these two countries. For each country case, the analysis provides insights on the benefits and costs of using FAs and useful lessons that can be informative for other countries that are considering adopting or strengthening the use of FAs with similar design. Chapter one gives introduction. Chapters two and three cover data analytics from Brazil and Colombia respectively. Additionally, following annexures are part of this report: annexure-A: a brief introduction to regression analysis; annexure-B: supporting data and information - Brazil; and annexure-C: supporting data and information - Colombia.
  • Publication
    Strengthening Infrastructure Governance for Investment and Service Delivery in Panama
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-24) World Bank
    Global evidence suggests better infrastructure governance results in more efficient spending and better growth outcomes at the national and subnational levels of government. Several studies (International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2015; OECD, 2015; World Bank 2014; OECD, 2013a) demonstrate that improvements in infrastructure governance can lead to substantial efficiency enhancements and enhanced infrastructure productivity over the life of the asset. Conversely, poor governance is a major reason why infrastructure projects fail to meet their timeframe, budget, and service delivery objectives. This report assesses the governance of the infrastructure sectors in Panama. Building on a dedicated infrastructure governance framework (see Section II), the report looks at the sector specific arrangements in electricity and water as well as the cross-cutting framework for infrastructure planning, procurement and delivery including for PPPs. The main recommendations of the report are presented in Section I below. Aimed at addressing Panama’s infrastructure governance bottlenecks, the recommendations specify the suggested timeline and priority.
  • Publication
    Benchmarking Public-Private Partnerships Procurement 2017: Assessing Government Capability to Prepare, Procure, and Manage PPPs
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03-30) World Bank
    Public-private partnership (PPP) projects are gaining momentum globally as a means for delivering infrastructure. Government capabilities to prepare, procure, and manage such projects are important to ensure that the expected efficiency gains are achieved. No systematic data currently exist to measure those capabilities in governments. Benchmarking PPP Procurement 2017 is the first attempt to collect and present comparable and actionable data on PPP procurement on a large scale, by providing an assessment of the regulatory frameworks and recognized practices that govern PPP procurement across 82 economies. Benchmarking PPP Procurement 2017 presents an analysis of targeted elements aggregated into four areas that cover the main stages of the PPP project cycle:preparation, procurement, and contract management of PPPs, and management of unsolicited proposals (USPs). Using a highway transport project as a case study to ensure cross-comparability, it analyzes the national regulatory frameworks and presents a picture of the procurement landscape at the end of March 2016. The average performance in each area varies across regions and income levels. Figure ES.1 shows that the higher the income level of the group, the higher the performance in the four areas. The data also show that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) high income and Latin American and Caribbean regions perform at or above average. Benchmarking PPP Procurement 2017 shows that across the four areas measured, mosteconomies fall short of good practice. In particular, a significant number of economies have low scores in two areas: project preparation and contract management. Consequently, there is room for improvement specially in regulating the activities to be undertaken before launching the PPP procurement process as well as in preparing for those that will follow after the signature of the PPP contract.
  • Publication
    Anti-Corruption in Romania: The Way Forward
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06) World Bank
    The report is organized as follows: the first chapter presents the status quo and diagnoses the reasons for continued corruption in Romania. It examines the perception of corruption by citizens and business along with the consequences. The chapter also proposes a ‘theory of change’ that can support Romania’s anti-corruption agenda in an integrated manner. The second chapter presents a brief analysis of the institutional and legislative framework for anti-corruption initiatives in Romania, highlighting the main achievements from the past years and remaining challenges ahead. The third chapter building on the framework proposed in the previous sections, this chapter proposes policy options to reduce the incentives for corruption, increase the chances of getting caught and enforce sanctions on the corrupt, while implementing measures to change social norms. The first section on reducing corruption proposes the introduction of a meritocratic civil service to make a shift from nepotism and politicization to performance and professionalization of the civil service. At the same time, increasing the transparency of government reduces the incentive for corruption because the decision-making and budget allocation is under scrutiny from citizens and civil society. A transparent government is also an enabling condition for accountable public institutions. Introducing a functioning feedback mechanism and inviting public participation will increase the chances that corrupt public servants, politicians and business people will be caught. At the same time, improving public procurement in accordance with the principles of competition, transparency and integrity, reduces the risks of corruption. The authors intend to use the framework contained in this report for broader engagement and to develop more in-depth sectorial analysis with relevant sector representatives. This could also include some of the priority areas, as proposed in the NAS, such as public procurement, healthcare, education, or management of EU Funds. In each of these areas, the report outlines the next steps that the current administration could take to make progress on anti-corruption in the coming years. The authors intend to partner with interested government institutions and international partners interested in making progress on this agenda to implement the report’s findings.
  • Publication
    Benchmarking Public Procurement 2017: Assessing Public Procurement Regulatory Systems in 180 Economies
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016) World Bank
    Despite the importance of the public procurement market, little effort has been made to systematically and consistently collect reliable statistics on a number of critical dimensions. To date, no attempt has been made to collect comparable statistics on the size of public procurement in economies around the world. While data are publicly available for High-income economies, for the rest of the world, data and studies are scarce. However, public procurement is as important in developing countries as it is in advanced economies. Governments in developing countries are significant purchasers of good and services, and these markets represent huge opportunities to enhance competition and development. Low-income countries have the highest share of publicprocurement in their economies, at 14.5 percent of GDP, followed by upper-middle income countries, at 13.6 percent, as data from government sources or international development institutions indicate. International statistics fall short in systematically and comparably capturing a number of other important dimensions of public procurement, including the regulatory and legal environment, risks and costs, quality and efficiency of service delivery, transparency and competition.
  • Publication
    Benchmarking Public-Private Partnerships Procurement 2015: A Pilot in 10 Economies
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015) World Bank Group
    Inadequate infrastructure in developing countries is a major constraint on growth. Many governments face the challenge of low quality or non-existent infrastructure, often deriving from insufficient funding, poor planning, or ineffective delivery and maintenance. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) can help improve the quality of infrastructure "by vesting control rights with the private sector, bundling into one contract the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the facility, and by transferring the risk of cost and time overruns to the private partner". Well-structured PPPs create the right incentives to maintain high performance records. They also tend to realign incentives in long-term service contracts so that responsibility for service delivery is transferred to the party with most to gain from sustained high performance. An appropriate PPP preparation and bidding process leads to a more efficient use of resources because the private partner will have a stake in the long-term implications of the cost of the infrastructure. In addition to these benefits, PPPs offer an opportunity to conduct "more informed and realistic selection procedures" by assessing long-term commitments and risk and shifting the focus from inputs to outputs (and even outcomes)
  • Publication
    Procurement and Service Delivery : An Overview of Efforts to Improve Governance of Public Procurement at Local Levels in South Asia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-11-01) World Bank
    Over the past decade, the overly centralized governance structures commonly found across South Asia have begun to change, with program and fiscal responsibility being devolved to local level government authorities and community-based organizations. This has led to greater participation of ordinary citizens in governance and public decision-making. The move to localize decision-making creates enormous opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of public spending since it creates the potential for establishing direct accountability of governance mechanisms to citizens. It also raises a number of significant challenges in ensuring that public funds are spent effectively at the local level, and provokes important new questions regarding the manner by which governments can maintain oversight over the quality of assets. This paper provides an overview of the activities supported under the project, with the aim of contributing to a broader perspective on improving governance and service delivery at the local level. The paper is divided into three parts. In part one the authors explore the challenges of spending money effectively at the local level, with a special focus on the governance challenges that exist in public procurement. In part two, the authors explore different approaches to addressing those challenges by discussing innovative work that has taken place with the support of the Project in the areas of regulation, contracting, transparency, and accountability. In part three, the authors analyze some broader themes and key questions that remain to be addressed while developing a strategic research and operational agenda around local level procurement.
  • Publication
    West Bank and Gaza : Country Procurement Issues Paper
    (Washington, DC, 2008-06) World Bank
    The main aim of the CPIP is to assess the current state of pubic procurement in West Bank and Gaza in the form of a ''snap shot'' and accordingly, to provide a partial assessment, broadly along the lines of the OPCS paper that would address the following objectives. First, to assess the latest progress with regard to the procurement reform recommended by the 2004 CPAR and the commitment of the Palestinian Authority (PA) to pursue the reform. Next, to report on the link between public sector procurement and the local private sector, in terms of competitiveness, performance, constraints, and commercial practices affecting public procurement. Finally, compile a set of recommendations that would strengthenprocurement arrangements and functions under future Bank-financed operations in the WB&G. These could also serve as basis to suggest specific improvements in current procurement processes, as well as next steps towards the achievement of a procurement system that meets internationally recognized standards.
  • Publication
    Maldives : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap
    (Washington, DC, 2007-05) World Bank
    The assessment focuses on the degree of readiness of Government of The Maldives's (GoTM's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from traditional paper-based, manual methods of procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). The e-GP Assessment was discussed individually with informed respondents in the public and private sectors, who provided advice or comment on the degree of readiness of nine key components related to e-GP: government leadership, human resource planning, procurement planning and management, procurement policy, procurement legislation and regulation, Internet and electronic infrastructure, standards, private sector integration, and current e-GP systems and initiatives. The assessment found: adequate evidence that Internet and electronic infrastructure are in place and supported, little evidence that government leadership, planning and management, procurement regulation, standards, private sector integration, or e-GP systems are in place and being supported; no evidence that human resource planning, procurement legislation, or procurement policy were in place. This report outlines a strategy to make ready and implement electronic government procurement policies, infrastructure, and initiatives.