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PublicationImproving Transparency and Accountability in Public-Private Partnerships: Disclosure Diagnostic Report - Honduras(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018) World BankA joint Government of Honduras and World Bank team conducted a study in Honduras between January and June 2017, using the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Disclosure Diagnostic template recommended by the World Bank Framework for Disclosure of Information in PPPs. This study has been consolidated in the form of a PPP Disclosure Diagnostic Report for Honduras. The Diagnostic Report examines the political, legal, and institutional environment for disclosure in PPPs. Based on a gap assessment exercise with key political, legal, institutional, and process findings benchmarked against the World Bank Framework, the Diagnostic Report makes specific recommendations to improve disclosure. The recommendations include a customized framework for disclosure of PPPs in Honduras. PublicationPreliminary Analysis: The Public Procurement Monitoring System of Montenegro(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06-30) World BankMontenegro is currently in the process of modernizing and restructuring its public procurement system, not only with a view to bringing its procurement system in line with international best practices and complete its accession requirements to enter the EU, but also to constructing more efficient and competitive public procurement, that will enable optimization of results. In order to guarantee that significant improvements are built into the procurement system, the Government of Montenegro has taken several steps to tackle its shortcomings, namely by devising strategies for the development of the procurement system along with action plans that establish specific measures and goals and respective timeframes for completion and tracking the implementation of such measures. The assessments conducted by external entities to the Government of Montenegro have shown that such strategies have been productive in addressing issues in the public procurement system of Montenegro and showcase a steady evolution towards better procurement practices. The analyses introduced by this methodology will most definitely concentrate on performance compliance indicators. These will allow for a more quantitative-based approach to monitoring of the public procurement practices in Montenegro, introducing a less formal concept of monitoring, which is currently restricted to legal and regulatory compliance and emphasizes formal and administrative aspects of procurement. Analyzing and improving the system of procurement is entirely dependent on data available and the analysis of the data for gathering business intelligence and increase productivity of all entities in the system. To this end, guidelines and key performance indicators (KPIs) on how to improve the monitoring, auditing and reporting mechanisms will be introduced. This analysis will also include the benchmarking of the 2015 annual report by the PPA, where monitoring will be assessed in terms of compliance with proposed targets and changes verified up to this point. PublicationGuide to Promote the Participation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Public Procurement Market in Montenegro(World Bank, Podgorica, 2017-06-30) World BankThe sector of small and medium-sized enterprises (hereinafter SMEs) represent an increasingly important segment of Montenegrin economy and have been key drivers of its economic growth and employment for the past several years. With foreign direct investment, this sector could be an important lever of economic development and the main creator of new jobs in the future. In order to survive and develop in the market, these enterprises have to constantly build new competitive benefits. The same can be built within the enterprises themselves through their strengthening and development, but also through mutual cooperation and linking. Because SMEs have an important role in the economic development of each country, it is necessary to encourage and facilitate their participation in public procurement procedures. Taking into account the fact that procurements merge at all levels (national and local), special attention should be paid to get SMEs more closely involved in the procurement procedures with contracting authorities, subject to the application of the LPP. Montenegro has recognized in its agenda through the strategy for the development of the public procurement system for the period 2016-2020 the necessity of active relationship between the state and local self-government on the development and encouragement of SMEs. Based on research carried out in direct communication with the representatives of these entities and their associations, with the aim to assess the readiness of SMEs to adapt to future activities in the field of public procurement, it is evident that they are planning new investments and expansion of business. They are ready to invest in human resources, technical, technological and other facilities necessary for successful business, in order to be competitive in the market. To that end, they expect more support from the state of Montenegro and the local community. In accordance with the orientation and expectations of SMEs this guide is intended to encourage the participation of SMEs at all levels in the area of public procurement. PublicationProcurement and Service Delivery : An Overview of Efforts to Improve Governance of Public Procurement at Local Levels in South Asia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-11-01) World BankOver the past decade, the overly centralized governance structures commonly found across South Asia have begun to change, with program and fiscal responsibility being devolved to local level government authorities and community-based organizations. This has led to greater participation of ordinary citizens in governance and public decision-making. The move to localize decision-making creates enormous opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of public spending since it creates the potential for establishing direct accountability of governance mechanisms to citizens. It also raises a number of significant challenges in ensuring that public funds are spent effectively at the local level, and provokes important new questions regarding the manner by which governments can maintain oversight over the quality of assets. This paper provides an overview of the activities supported under the project, with the aim of contributing to a broader perspective on improving governance and service delivery at the local level. The paper is divided into three parts. In part one the authors explore the challenges of spending money effectively at the local level, with a special focus on the governance challenges that exist in public procurement. In part two, the authors explore different approaches to addressing those challenges by discussing innovative work that has taken place with the support of the Project in the areas of regulation, contracting, transparency, and accountability. In part three, the authors analyze some broader themes and key questions that remain to be addressed while developing a strategic research and operational agenda around local level procurement. PublicationActivating Social Audits in Orissa(Washington, DC, 2009-11-01) World BankWith the passing of the National Rural Employment Act (NREGA) in 2005, the Government of India established a landmark provision that enables communities to act as watchdogs on local level implementation of the Government's flagship anti-poverty program. While the concept of 'social audits' builds on a great deal of experience in the country, the provisions in the Act have not been translated into clear guidelines. As a result, social audits of NREGA have tended to be driven through 'high impact' approaches led by civil society organizations and have been focused on exposing malpractice rather than improving implementation. This paper discusses an initiative by the centre for youth and social development which sought to explore options to activate the social audit process in Orissa. The design draws on the provisions of the Act with a view to developing a sustainable model for the state. The pilot was conducted in six gram panchayats where the various stages of preparation, committee formation, auditing and reporting were developed. The paper highlights the importance of social audits as an instrument to support implementation, and in particular of raising awareness and ensuring clarity regarding the roles of various stakeholders. Taking this process forward demands a long term perspective, based on collaboration between the government and civil society that can develop the capacities of beneficiaries to ensure effective implementation at the local level. PublicationPakistan - Federal Procurement Baseline Indicator Systems Assessment(World Bank, 2009-06-01) World BankThe Baseline Indicators (BLIs) assessment has been conducted by the Development Partners and the Government of Pakistan as a precursor to carrying forward the Government's efforts to upgrade the Country Procurement Systems (CPS) to international standards and to help it assess the level and type of technical assistance required for achieving this objective. The assessment, being the first phase of a comprehensive procurement performance assessment, covered the four pillars as well as all the indicators and sub-indicators in each pillar based on a review of the existing regulatory framework and the institutional and operational arrangements and as provided for in the Organization for Economic Development (OECD) Development Advisory Committee (DAC) guidelines. While the views expressed in the report were the subject of discussions at the stakeholders' workshop, they do not necessarily represent the views of the Government of Pakistan. The result indicates that compared to the standard required for a transparent, efficient and effective procurement system, the existing system in Pakistan needs to be improved substantially. The highest achieved rating is for pillar one, the legislative and regulatory framework, which is an amalgam of specific legislation and sub-legislation impacting the procurement activity of the government and the older legislative instruments affecting the overall operations of the public and/or the private sectors. The Public Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) is the apex body of the institutional framework (pillar two) governing the public procurement arena. The Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) was involved as a member of the Kazi committee to prepare a standard bidding document and standard General Conditions of Contract (GCC) for all engineering contracts. Improvements in improving the procurement market and operations (pillar three) can only happen when substantial progress has been achieved in reforming pillars one and two of the procurement framework. Integrity and efficiency in the public procurement system (pillar four) is the ultimate goal of all procurement systems and is not easily achieved. This, therefore, requires changes not only within the specific procurement related legislation, but also across a raft of other legislation to ensure an overall enabling environment. Coupled to this is the need to motivate decision makers and civil society to actively participate in ensuring the implementation of the revised legislation. This will require several years, but the effort could be started at an early stage of the reform process. PublicationWest Bank and Gaza : Country Procurement Issues Paper(Washington, DC, 2008-06) World BankThe main aim of the CPIP is to assess the current state of pubic procurement in West Bank and Gaza in the form of a ''snap shot'' and accordingly, to provide a partial assessment, broadly along the lines of the OPCS paper that would address the following objectives. First, to assess the latest progress with regard to the procurement reform recommended by the 2004 CPAR and the commitment of the Palestinian Authority (PA) to pursue the reform. Next, to report on the link between public sector procurement and the local private sector, in terms of competitiveness, performance, constraints, and commercial practices affecting public procurement. Finally, compile a set of recommendations that would strengthenprocurement arrangements and functions under future Bank-financed operations in the WB&G. These could also serve as basis to suggest specific improvements in current procurement processes, as well as next steps towards the achievement of a procurement system that meets internationally recognized standards. PublicationMaldives : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap(Washington, DC, 2007-05) World BankThe assessment focuses on the degree of readiness of Government of The Maldives's (GoTM's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from traditional paper-based, manual methods of procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). The e-GP Assessment was discussed individually with informed respondents in the public and private sectors, who provided advice or comment on the degree of readiness of nine key components related to e-GP: government leadership, human resource planning, procurement planning and management, procurement policy, procurement legislation and regulation, Internet and electronic infrastructure, standards, private sector integration, and current e-GP systems and initiatives. The assessment found: adequate evidence that Internet and electronic infrastructure are in place and supported, little evidence that government leadership, planning and management, procurement regulation, standards, private sector integration, or e-GP systems are in place and being supported; no evidence that human resource planning, procurement legislation, or procurement policy were in place. This report outlines a strategy to make ready and implement electronic government procurement policies, infrastructure, and initiatives. PublicationKosovo : Operational Procurement Review(Washington, DC, 2004-06) World BankThis Operational Procurement Report (OPR) provides an assessment of the public-sector procurement system in Kosovo, including that on the legislative framework, the responsibilities and capacity of the institutions entrusted with regulatory and review powers, the efficacy of current procurement practices, and on the environment. The report makes recommendations to bring about legislative, institutional and procedural improvements in the conduct of public procurement, and to bolster the capacity of public-sector institutions to conduct procurement. The report also examines the performance of procurement in projects financed by the Bank, assesses the fiduciary risk to Bank funds from procurement operations in Kosovo, and makes recommendations for the design of procurement arrangements on new Bank-financed projects, and for future supervision of procurement to mitigate that risk. Among the various report recommendations, outlined are the enactment of a transitional legal instrument and completion of the legislative framework for public procurement. Furthermore, greater transparency and accountability of public officials conducting procurement transactions should be ensured, while technical capacity for public procurement should be built within the public sector. Most importantly, over the medium term, the new Law on Public Procurement should be amended.