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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World BankProcurement of commonly used items is a challenge for government agencies. If the items are repeatedly purchased in one-off fashion, so that the total volume is significant, there may be potential problems like loss of economy of scale, loss of efficiency, lower competition, and no long-term partnership with suppliers. Framework agreements (FAs) have emerged as a potential solution for the issues. Many countries (particularly in Americas and Europe) have used FAs successfully, though the use of FAs by countries outside these regions is still very low. Hence there is tremendous potential for scaling-up the use of FAs in developing countries. This study uses public procurement data from Brazil and Colombia, two major users of FAs. The subsequent chapters will describe the data used for the analysis, the methodology, and the findings. The country contexts, designs of FAs, available data and research questions vary across Brazil and Colombia, and therefore the empirical findings are not comparable between these two countries. For each country case, the analysis provides insights on the benefits and costs of using FAs and useful lessons that can be informative for other countries that are considering adopting or strengthening the use of FAs with similar design. Chapter one gives introduction. Chapters two and three cover data analytics from Brazil and Colombia respectively. Additionally, following annexures are part of this report: annexure-A: a brief introduction to regression analysis; annexure-B: supporting data and information - Brazil; and annexure-C: supporting data and information - Colombia.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020) World Bank Group Sanctions BoardThis edition of the Law Digest for the World Bank Group's Sanctions Board presents structured summaries of the Sanctions Board's precedent as set out through more than 100 decisions issued since 2007. The Law Digest also includes key data relating to the work of the Sanctions Board and the World Bank Group's larger sanctions system. Themes covered in this digest include the scope of the Sanctions Board's authority, various types of procedural and evidentiary questions in sanctions proceedings, and the Sanctions Board's overall analysis of the allegations of fraud, corruption, collusion, and obstruction in projects supported by the World Bank Group that form the core of individual sanctions cases.
Guide to Promote the Participation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Public Procurement Market in Montenegro(World Bank, Podgorica, 2017-06-30) World BankThe sector of small and medium-sized enterprises (hereinafter SMEs) represent an increasingly important segment of Montenegrin economy and have been key drivers of its economic growth and employment for the past several years. With foreign direct investment, this sector could be an important lever of economic development and the main creator of new jobs in the future. In order to survive and develop in the market, these enterprises have to constantly build new competitive benefits. The same can be built within the enterprises themselves through their strengthening and development, but also through mutual cooperation and linking. Because SMEs have an important role in the economic development of each country, it is necessary to encourage and facilitate their participation in public procurement procedures. Taking into account the fact that procurements merge at all levels (national and local), special attention should be paid to get SMEs more closely involved in the procurement procedures with contracting authorities, subject to the application of the LPP. Montenegro has recognized in its agenda through the strategy for the development of the public procurement system for the period 2016-2020 the necessity of active relationship between the state and local self-government on the development and encouragement of SMEs. Based on research carried out in direct communication with the representatives of these entities and their associations, with the aim to assess the readiness of SMEs to adapt to future activities in the field of public procurement, it is evident that they are planning new investments and expansion of business. They are ready to invest in human resources, technical, technological and other facilities necessary for successful business, in order to be competitive in the market. To that end, they expect more support from the state of Montenegro and the local community. In accordance with the orientation and expectations of SMEs this guide is intended to encourage the participation of SMEs at all levels in the area of public procurement.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06-30) World BankMontenegro is currently in the process of modernizing and restructuring its public procurement system, not only with a view to bringing its procurement system in line with international best practices and complete its accession requirements to enter the EU, but also to constructing more efficient and competitive public procurement, that will enable optimization of results. In order to guarantee that significant improvements are built into the procurement system, the Government of Montenegro has taken several steps to tackle its shortcomings, namely by devising strategies for the development of the procurement system along with action plans that establish specific measures and goals and respective timeframes for completion and tracking the implementation of such measures. The assessments conducted by external entities to the Government of Montenegro have shown that such strategies have been productive in addressing issues in the public procurement system of Montenegro and showcase a steady evolution towards better procurement practices. The analyses introduced by this methodology will most definitely concentrate on performance compliance indicators. These will allow for a more quantitative-based approach to monitoring of the public procurement practices in Montenegro, introducing a less formal concept of monitoring, which is currently restricted to legal and regulatory compliance and emphasizes formal and administrative aspects of procurement. Analyzing and improving the system of procurement is entirely dependent on data available and the analysis of the data for gathering business intelligence and increase productivity of all entities in the system. To this end, guidelines and key performance indicators (KPIs) on how to improve the monitoring, auditing and reporting mechanisms will be introduced. This analysis will also include the benchmarking of the 2015 annual report by the PPA, where monitoring will be assessed in terms of compliance with proposed targets and changes verified up to this point.