Country Notes on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

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The Country Notes are a series of country briefs on climate change and agriculture for 19 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean region, with focus on policy developments (action plans and programs), institutional make-up, specific adaptation and mitigation strategies, as well as social aspects and insurance mechanisms to address risk in the sector. The Country Notes provide a snapshot of key vulnerability indicators and establish a baseline of knowledge on climate change and agriculture in each country. The Country Notes are the beginning of a process of information gathering on climate change and agriculture.

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El Salvador - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in El Salvador, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, El Salvador has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. According to the national greenhouse gases (GHG) inventory (2000), land use change and forestry (LUCF) is the second largest contributor to GHG emissions in the country, after the energy sector. The emission reduction potential of the sector is large. El Salvador counts with six clean development mechanism (CDM) projects, none of which are in the agricultural sector. It is estimated that Central America produces less than 0.5 percent of global carbon emissions, but it is one the most vulnerable regions to climate change related impacts on the planet. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability and to observed climate change, this coupled with problems of land degradation in the country. A greater emphasis on recovering deforested or agricultural lands, reducing land degradation, reforestation and developing and applying adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

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Nicaragua - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Nicaragua, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Nicaragua has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry are by far the largest contributors to green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential of the sector is large, but not sufficiently explored. Nicaragua counts with only three Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, none of which are in the agricultural sector. It is estimated that Central America produces less than 0.5 percent of global carbon emissions, but it is one the most vulnerable regions to climate change related impacts on the planet. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability and weather extremes, this coupled with problems of land degradation in the country. A greater emphasis on reducing soil degradation, reforestation and developing and applying adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

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Colombia - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Colombia, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Colombia has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Agriculture (including land use change and forestry) significantly contributes to total green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential of the agricultural sector (including land use change and forestry) is significant and not yet sufficiently explored in the country. Colombia does not count with a single Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in the agricultural sector. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to weather extremes, in particular on the Caribbean coast, where the threat of floods is prevalent. Reducing vulnerability to climate change is of utmost importance in the agricultural sector in Colombia, considering the role the sector plays in food security and livelihoods of rural populations.

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Peru - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Peru, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most developing countries, Peru has submitted only one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), with the second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry are the largest contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential of the agricultural (including land use change and forestry) sector is large, though not yet sufficiently explored. Peru currently counts with one Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project in the agricultural sector, and one CDM reforestation project. Reducing vulnerability to climate change and, in particular, to water scarcity due to variations in precipitation and glacier retreats is of increasing importance in the agricultural sector, coupled with more sustainable land management practices.

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Costa Rica - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Costa Rica, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Costa Rica has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry are the largest contributors to GHG emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential of the sector is large and several reforestation programs have been initiated. It is estimated that Central America produces less than 0.5 percent of global carbon emissions, but it is one the most vulnerable regions to climate change related impacts on the planet. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability, this coupled with problems of land degradation in the country. A greater emphasis on reducing soil degradation and developing and applying adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

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Bolivia - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Bolivia, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Bolivia has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry, coupled with agriculture, are by far the largest contributors to green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential of the sector is large, but not sufficiently explored. Bolivia counts with only two registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, none of which is in the agricultural sector. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability and weather extremes and around a third of the population derives their livelihood from agricultural production. A greater emphasis on adaptation strategies, in particular those related to water harvest and sustainable land management, as well as developing and applying adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

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Guatemala - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Guatemala, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Guatemala has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Land use change and forestry are by far the largest contributors to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential of the sector is large, but not sufficiently explored. Guatemala counts with eight CDM projects, one of which is in the agricultural sector. It is estimated that Central America produces less than 0.5 percent of global carbon emissions, but it is one the most vulnerable regions to climate change related impacts on the planet. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability and weather extremes, this coupled with problems of land degradation in the country. A greater emphasis on reducing soil degradation, reforestation and developing and applying adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.