Country Notes on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

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The Country Notes are a series of country briefs on climate change and agriculture for 19 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean region, with focus on policy developments (action plans and programs), institutional make-up, specific adaptation and mitigation strategies, as well as social aspects and insurance mechanisms to address risk in the sector. The Country Notes provide a snapshot of key vulnerability indicators and establish a baseline of knowledge on climate change and agriculture in each country. The Country Notes are the beginning of a process of information gathering on climate change and agriculture.

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Honduras - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Honduras, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Honduras has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry are by far the largest contributors to green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential of the sector is large, but not sufficiently explored. Honduras counts with the largest number of registered CDM projects in Central America, 15 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, of which three are in the agricultural sector. It is estimated that Central America produces less than 0.5 percent of global carbon emissions, but it is one the most vulnerable regions to climate change related impacts on the planet. In 2004, the United Nations identified Honduras among the first 20 most vulnerable countries in the world in terms of vulnerability to floods and the most vulnerable to hurricanes. Honduras was also identified as the most vulnerable country in Central America by the British society Maplecroft in their study titled 'vulnerability index to climate change.' Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability and weather extremes, this coupled with problems of land degradation in the country. A greater emphasis on reducing soil degradation, reforestation and developing and applying adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

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Panama - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Panama, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Panama has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry are by far the largest contributors to green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential of the sector is large, but not sufficiently explored. Panama counts with only five Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, none of which are in the agricultural sector. It is estimated that Central America produces less than 0.5 percent of global carbon emissions, but it is one the most vulnerable regions to climate change related impacts on the planet. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability and weather extremes, this coupled with problems of land degradation in the country. A greater emphasis on reducing soil degradation, reforestation and developing and applying adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

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Dominican Republic - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in the Dominican Republic, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, the Dominican Republic has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry are large contributors to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions within the sector. The emission reduction potential is large and several reforestation programs have been initiated. The Dominican Republic does not count with Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in the agricultural sector, thus carbon trading opportunities can be explored. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events, this coupled with problems of land degradation in the country. A greater emphasis on developing and applying adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

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Paraguay - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Paraguay, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Paraguay has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry are the largest contributors to green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential is large and several reforestation programs have been initiated. Paraguay is among the few countries in Latin America without a single Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project, and carbon trading opportunities can be explored. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability, this coupled with problems of land degradation in the country. A greater emphasis on developing and applying adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

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El Salvador - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in El Salvador, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, El Salvador has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. According to the national greenhouse gases (GHG) inventory (2000), land use change and forestry (LUCF) is the second largest contributor to GHG emissions in the country, after the energy sector. The emission reduction potential of the sector is large. El Salvador counts with six clean development mechanism (CDM) projects, none of which are in the agricultural sector. It is estimated that Central America produces less than 0.5 percent of global carbon emissions, but it is one the most vulnerable regions to climate change related impacts on the planet. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability and to observed climate change, this coupled with problems of land degradation in the country. A greater emphasis on recovering deforested or agricultural lands, reducing land degradation, reforestation and developing and applying adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

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Mexico - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Mexico, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Mexico is the only developing country to have submitted three national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), indicating strong commitment by the government for addressing climate change across sectors. Agriculture contributes little, in relative terms, to total green house gas (GHG) emissions and the emission reduction potential in the sector is small and primarily focused on methane reduction, though more diversified carbon trading opportunities can be pursued. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to weather extremes, in particular in the Northern parts of the country, where water scarcity is an issue, or the Southern parts of the country, where tropical storms caused extensive damage to crop and livestock production. Reducing vulnerability to climate change is of utmost importance in the agricultural sector in Mexico, considering the role the sector plays in food security and livelihoods of rural populations.

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Venezuela - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Venezuela, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Venezuela has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry are the largest contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential is large and there are several reforestation programs have been initiated. Venezuela is among the few countries in Latin America without a single clean development mechanism (CDM) project, and carbon trading opportunities can be explored. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to weather extremes. A greater emphasis on developing and applying adaptation and mitigation programs, as well as adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

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Haiti - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Haiti, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Haiti has submitted its National Adaptation Plan of Action to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Land use change and forestry are the largest contributors to green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential is large and unexplored. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events, this coupled with problems of severe land degradation and poverty in the country. A greater emphasis on developing and applying adequate insurance mechanisms can be placed for better management of public resources in light of natural disasters in the agriculture sector.

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Brazil - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Brazil, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. In Brazil, the 5th largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world, agriculture (including land use change and forestry) is the largest contributor to green house gas (GHG) emissions. The emission reduction potential of the agricultural sector (including land use change and forestry) is significant and not yet sufficiently explored. Brazil currently counts with 30 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in the agricultural sector (targeting only methane emission reductions and biomass generation), while there are no registered CDM projects in the country under the 'afforestation and reforestation' category. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability, particularly in the Brazilian semi-arid Northeast where droughts have had a significant impact on crop yields and people's livelihood. The extension and improvement of both irrigation infrastructure and climate-sensitive insurance coverage for agricultural production, as well as addressing the problems of severe land degradation, can reduce some of the observed vulnerabilities in the country. Reducing poverty and inequality in rural areas, and particularly in those areas already vulnerable to climate risk, can also contribute to minimizing the negative impacts of future weather variability.

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Argentina - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

2009-12, World Bank

This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Argentina, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Argentina is one of the four developing countries in the world to have submitted two national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), indicating strong commitment by the government for addressing climate change issues across sectors. Agriculture (including land use change and forestry) is the largest contributor to green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country, while contributing less than six percent of Gross Domestic product (GDP), and it represents fifty-five percent of the country's export base (including processed agricultural goods). The emission reduction potential of the agricultural sector (including land use change and forestry) is significant and not yet sufficiently explored in the country. Argentina currently counts with only one Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in the agricultural sector. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability. The extension and improvement of both irrigation infrastructure and climate-sensitive insurance coverage for agricultural production can reduce some of the observed vulnerabilities in the country.