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Publication(Washington, DC, 2022-07) World BankSubstantial gender gaps exist in labor force participation and productivity in the agriculture sector in Nigeria. Closing the gender productivity gap in agriculture could lead to sizable gains in the Nigerian economy, boosting gross domestic product. Key factors driving the gender gaps in agriculture include women farmers’ limited use of farm inputs, choice of lowvalue crops, and lower productivity of hired labor. To successfully close gender gaps, policy makers not only need a detailed account of what drives these gaps, but also a rigorous evidence base on cost-effective policy options. This brief offers guidance on interventions that could be adopted to address the underlying constraints faced by women farmers in Nigeria. These recommendations could also meaningfully inform the framework and implementation of the National Gender Policy on Agriculture.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-03) World BankThis policy brief summarizes key policy lessons from the Africa Gender Innovation Lab on ways to empower women farmers.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-10) Oseni, Gbemisola ; Corral, Paul ; Goldstein, Markus ; Winters, PaulNigeria presents a unique case study on differences in agricultural productivity between men and women. This study, which captures a comprehensive picture of agriculture across the nation, shows that female farmers produce 16 percent less per hectare than their male counterparts, when plot size, farmer characteristics, and inputs are taken into account. This gender gap is driven by the North East and Central zones located in the Northern region of the country, where female farmers are 28 percent less productive than male farmers. In this region, women, particularly those who are older, farm on smaller plots and have lower levels of key inputs, notably fertilizer and labor, which is a well-documented pattern in many African contexts. The Southern region, however, does not fit this established pattern. When controlling for key characteristics and factors of production, in the South no gender gap in productivity is observed, though female farmers will benefit from additional herbicide and female labor. The notably different patterns in these two regions of the same country provide ample space for further study. Thus, in order to decrease the country-wide gender gap in production, the authors recommend extending access to fertilizer, hired labor, and cash crops to women - particularly those in the North.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-10) Oseni, Gbemisola ; Goldstein, Markus ; Utah, AmarachiWith a fast growing population requiring an ever growing supply of food, a national poverty rate of 63 percent, and a labor force that is dominated by agricultural work, Nigeria's efforts to boost agricultural productivity could not be better timed. Though women constitute a large share of the agricultural labor force in Nigeria, little is known about their activities, roles, and constraints in the sector. By thoroughly assessing their agricultural activities, it will help to determine not only what women are doing in the sector, but how best to reduce their constraints and increase productivity. This policy brief, the first in a series of two, investigates the role of women in Nigerian agriculture using the first dataset to capture a comprehensive picture of agriculture across the nation of Nigeria. It finds that women are heavily involved in the production of both, staple (food) crops and cash crops, the agricultural value chain, and livestock production. However, women earn and produce much less than men, and have limited access to land, inputs, labor, and extension services.