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Moldova: Water Security Diagnostic and Future Outlook(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-18) Smets, Susanna ; Midgley, Amelia ; Mao, Zhimin ; Vladicescu, Veaceslav ; Neumann, James E. ; Strzepek, Ken ; Pricop, FeliciaOver the past two decades Moldova has achieved major development results: poverty more than halved between 2007 and 2014, and shared prosperity for the poorest households rose sharply. Yet Moldova’s growth model is volatile, unsustainable, and is losing strength. Water underpins much of Moldova’s ability to rekindle dynamism in its economy and to provide outcomes for the health and well-being of its people and environment. Yet gaps remain in understanding the country’s water resources endowments. This diagnostic suggests that in 2018 water availability is not a binding constraint to development. Even in the presence of future changes in demand, there are limited or manageable physical constraints to water security. Going beyond a focus on the water balance, this report assesses Moldova’s water security and identifies important water-related challenges that may hinder progress in economic and human development. Moldova’s water security is threatened by poor infrastructure and suboptimal institutional performance. Through an assessment of service delivery, water resources management and risk mitigation, and an analysis of institutional arrangements and sector expenditure data, this diagnostic establishes a set of policy recommendations on how water should be sustained and leveraged to support Moldova’s development. This report provides a new, comprehensive, and balanced view of water security in Moldova, highlighting the complex water issues that Moldova must tackle to improve its water security. It seeks to elevate water security as an issue critical for national development by providing stakeholders with a stocktaking and outlook on water-related risks, and opportunities in which water can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction.
Diagnostics and Policy Advice for Supporting Roma Inclusion in Romania(Washington, DC, 2014-02-28) World BankRomanian Roma families today constitute a large, young, and extremely poor ethnic minority group, facing exclusion from markets and services. Investments in Roma inclusion are essential for Romania to achieve its Europe 2020 social inclusion goals, and the considerable returns on such investments will lay a more solid foundation for achieving sustained, shared prosperity across Romanian society. Therefore, Roma inclusion is not only a moral imperative, but also smart economics for Romania. This report discusses what it will take for Romania to achieve the socioeconomic inclusion of its Roma population. The report identifies the most important socioeconomic achievement gaps of Romanian Roma. It identifies obstacles to Roma inclusion and examines the relevant institutional framework. It draws policy recommendations based on the observed gaps in outcomes and policies, informed by evidence on what works from international experience. These recommendations focus on providing support and enhancing opportunities for the next generation of Roma while helping to improve the living conditions of the current generation. In this context, the report is organized as follows: chapter one focuses on Roma inclusion is smart economics for Romania; chapter two presents socioeconomic achievement gaps of Roma; chapter three focuses on obstacles to Roma inclusion; and chapter four presents priority interventions and policy measures.
Debt Management Performance Assessment : Republic of Moldova(Washington, DC, 2008-04) World BankThe Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) comprises a set of fifteen debt performance indicators (DPIs), which aim to encompass the complete spectrum of government debt management (DeM) operations as well as the overall environment in which these operations are conducted. While the DeMPA does not specify recommendations on reforms and/or capacity and institution building needs, the performance indicators do stipulate a minimum level that should be met under all conditions. Consequently, if the assessment shows that the minimum requirements are not met, this will clearly indicate an area requiring attention or priority reform. The scope of the DeMPA is central government debt management activities and closely related functions such as issuance of loan guarantees, on-lending, and cash flow forecasting and cash balance management. Thus, the DeMPA does not assess the ability to manage the wider public debt, including implicit contingent liabilities (such as liabilities of the pension system, losses of state-owned enterprises (SOE), etc.), as well as debt of SOE, if these are not guaranteed by the central government.