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PublicationThinking about Aid Predictability(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-09) Andrews, Matthew; Wilhelm, VeraResearchers are giving more attention to aid predictability. In part, this is because of increases in the number of aid agencies and aid dollars and the growing complexity of the aid community. A growing body of research is examining key questions: Is aid unpredictable? What causes unpredictability? What can be done about it? This note draws from a selection of recent literature to bring some clarity to the basic story emerging. The authors start by presenting evidence from the literature on various problems with aid flows. Then authors discuss how researchers use terms like volatility and unpredictability when discussing aid predictability; the suggest that these concepts can be sharpened by introducing two new concepts: expectations and reliability. These new concepts are particularly useful in conceptualizing the problems of unpredictable flows in government budget processes. This approach allows a basic analysis of how timing and different types of aid affect predictability, and the implications for policy making. PublicationThe Public Sector Governance Reform Cycle : Available Diagnostic Tools(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2004-07) Wilhelm, Vera; Kushnarova, InnaDeveloping more efficient, transparent public institutions in the Bank's client countries requires a two-pronged approach. First, countries must build their capacity to perform functions such as policymaking and policy implementation, regulation, service delivery, and administrative management. Second, they must enhance the state's accountability-both internally, among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, and externally, to citizens, users of public services, and other stakeholders. Initiatives in both areas contribute to good governance, understood as the exercise of public authority for the common good. To succeed, this approach must be based on a solid diagnosis of the weaknesses it is trying to address, accompanied by awareness and buy-in from citizens, politicians, and the international community.