Europe and Central Asia Knowledge Brief

67 items available

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This is a regular series of notes highlighting recent analyses, good practices, and lessons learned from the development work program of the World Bank’s Europe and Central Asia Region.

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  • Publication
    Transition to a Low-Emissions Economy in Poland
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-08) Jorgensen, Erika; Kąsek, Leszek
    Poland is not among the largest emitters of greenhouse gases globally, but its economy is among the least emissions-efficient in the European Union (EU). Poland's global share in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is just 1percent and its per capita emissions are similar to the EU overall. Its lower income level, the Polish economy comes out as among the least carbon-efficient. Poland's transition to a market economy since 1989 had a co-benefit of sharply reduced CO2 emissions; however, the link between growth and emissions has re-emerged in recent years. A critical difference in the make-up of Poland's emissions is the dominance of the power sector and its extraordinary dependence on coal. Over 90 percent of electricity in Poland is generated from coal and lignite, the highest share in the EU. This makes Poland an outlier, both globally and in Europe.
  • Publication
    Successful Education Reform : Lessons from Poland
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-11) Mahfooz, Sara Bin; Hovde, Kate
    Poland's education reforms have produced a large overall improvement in educational performance, as measured by results on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Before 1999, primary school in Poland was 8 years, followed by tracking into vocational or academic programs. Now, the primary cycle has been changed to six years, followed by three years of comprehensive lower secondary school or gymnasium for all students, before a vocational tracking decision is made. Increased hours of instruction and delayed tracking of students into the vocational education stream were the most important factors in the improvement of test scores. In 2000, only one percent of polish students received more than four hours of language class, while in 2006, 76 percent of students received more than four hours of language class.