Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 10 of 17
  • Publication
    Diagnostic Analysis for Circular Economy Interventions in Poland
    (Washington, DC, 2023-12-05) World Bank
    Over the past decade, material efficiency and resource productivity have surfaced on the global policy agenda. The rise of the circular economy (CE) agenda reflects the objective of moving away from the current systems of production and consumption based on the ‘take-make-use-waste’ linear economic model toward economies centered on minimizing the use of virgin materials without adversely affecting welfare. The focus is on a life-cycle approach to resource management, which starts with reducing raw material demand by looping resources back into consumption and production systems, through innovations in material design, production, and reutilization processes. In addition to reducing pollution and other environmental pressures, CE can be a driver of private sector growth and jobs, and can increase the strategic autonomy of countries by reducing dependence on raw material imports. The objective of this rapid analysis is to identify the CE-related priority areas/sectors in Poland and potential areas of focus for follow-up interventions. The study also aims to highlight barriers that prevent the national and local governments from undertaking these interventions as well as enabling factors and approaches to overcome them. This report is not intended to be an in-depth analysis but rather an overview of the status of CE implementation in Poland that provides some recommendations to policy makers on how to accelerate progress toward a CE in Poland.
  • Publication
    Options to Support Workers through a Transition away from Coal in Eastern Wielkopolska (March 2022)
    (World Bank, WAshington DC, 2023-05-30) Honorati, Maddalena
    The objective of this policy note is to provide an overview of the three draft project proposals and to recommend key design principles and implementation arrangement options for a coordinated outplacement program in the Eastern Wielkopolska region that would provide a package of services to motivate and help affected workers find suitable jobs in alignment with the TJTP. The focus of the note is on interventions supporting the social and labor transition in Eastern Wielkopolska, rather than the economic, spatial, and energy transformations which are also part of the JTM Pillar. Efforts to promote local economic development and environmental rehabilitation of affected subregions as well as to develop stakeholder engagement and public communication strategies are beyond the scope of this note.
  • Publication
    Sustainable Cities Towards A Green, Resilient and Inclusive Recovery: Applying the Sustainable Cities Implementation Framework in Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland, and Romania
    (Washington, DC, 2022-03) World Bank
    Cities are key to unlocking a climate-smart future for all, as they account for more than 50 percent of the global population, about 70 percent of global energy-related CO2 emissions and 80 percent of global GDP. Urban centers’ share of emissions is expected to grow as the urban population is projected to increase by 2.3 billion people by 20502. As the world recovers from the COVID-19 crisis, cities will present a huge opportunity to rebuild in a way that is climate friendly and meets some of the world’s ambitious climate targets. Cities are viewed as the source of and the solution to many of today's economic, social, and environmental challenges. This is not only because of the concentration of population and economic assets in urban areas, but also because local authorities perform key functions that impact the quality of life of their residents. From an urban management perspective, the leading resource and knowledge sharing platform is the GEF funded Global Platform for Sustainable Cities (GPSC), hosted by the World Bank. The GPSC states that achieving sustainability requires the balanced accomplishment of outcomes against four pillars, namely (1) robust economic growth, prosperity, and competitiveness across all parts of the city; (2) protection and conservation of ecosystems and natural resources into perpetuity; (3) mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while fostering overall city resilience; and (4) inclusiveness and livability, mainly through the reduction of city poverty levels and inequality. The Urban Sustainability Framework (USF), developed to outline the areas of work and support by the GPSC, offers a very useful representation of both outcomes as well as enabling actions and requirements (such as spatial data and good governance) cities could focus on.
  • Publication
    Air Quality Deep Dive - Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland and Romania: Sustainable Cities Implementation Framework
    (Washington, DC, 2022-02) World Bank
    The World Bank is developing a Sustainable Cities Implementation Framework for Europe and Central Asia to inform World Bank and other development partners’ ongoing support to national and sub-national authorities in pursuit of Sustainable Cities. As part of this work, preliminary assessments were conducted in four countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland and Romania), which identified the need for deep dive analytics on three topics (Air Quality, Spatial Form and Solid Waste Management). This report explores air quality challenges in urban areas, focusing on existing data, identifying contributing factors to poor air quality, and providing recommendations (implementation support areas) to improve air quality in Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland and Romania. Air pollution has a major impact on the sustainability of an urban area. It is a significant cause of premature death and morbidity, representing the single, largest environmental health risk in Europe. People in the larger cities tend to be exposed to higher levels of nitrogen dioxide due to emissions from road traffic. In central and eastern Europe, air quality is poor in many areas, especially in urban settings, and the burning of solid fuels for domestic heating and in industry results in public exposure to the highest concentrations of particulate matter and polycyclic hydrocarbons.
  • Publication
    Towards a Just Coal Transition Labor Market Challenges and People’s Perspectives from Silesia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) Christiaensen, Luc; Gajderowicz, Tomasz; Ruppert Bulmer, Elizabeth; Wrona, Sylwia
    Part of a three-region set of papers analyzing coal-related labor market challenges in Poland, this paper focuses on Silesia. The findings call for a more territorial-oriented approach to brokering the coal transition, rather than a sectoral one. First, the number of jobs directly linked to coal-mining in Silesia is substantial, with 72,000 employees in the mining conglomerates, and an additional 17,000 providing goods and services to the mines. Second, coal-related employment is heavily concentrated geographically: as much as 40 percent of the population of Bieruńsko-Iedziński is employed directly and indirectly in the mining sector, and 80 percent of the mining conglomerates' contract value goes to subcontractors within a 20km radius of the mines. Third, the coal sector is highly integrated among a few large firms: 28 percent of the indirect workforce is employed by 10 subcontractors. Fourth, workers in the mining conglomerates have lower foundational (but better technical) skills than their regional and national counterparts, especially those with lower education. Finally, while eager to work, discrete choice experiments about their job attribute preferences show that they are averse to both, commuting and relocating for work, even though less so than in Wielkopolska, yet more so that in Lower Silesia, the two other regions. Together this suggests that there are important welfare and political economic benefits to adequate job creation locally. The paper further advances a data-driven viable-job-matching tool specifically tailored to the Polish labor market and illustrates how it could be used to assess the potential of local labor markets and future investments to absorb the coal-affected workers accounting for their skills profile, re/upskilling needs, and job attribute preferences.
  • Publication
    Poland Country Economic Memorandum: The Green Transformation in Poland – Opportunities and Challenges for Economic Growth
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    Poland’s economic development story is one of success: since the early 1990s, the country has transitioned to a market economy, integrated into the European Union economy and global supply chains and sustained robust growth, avoiding the middle-income trap and increasing the resilience of its economy. Poland has sustained strong growth over the past three decades, making substantial advances in converging towards the European Union (EU-27) average per capita income, although there is still a considerable gap in both productivity and income convergence when compared with aspirational peers. Poland successfully transitioned to an EU-integrated market economy, moving from upper middle-income to high-income status in less than a decade and a half. Its economy underwent a deep structural transformation, supported by cost-competitiveness, and is now well-diversified and more resilient to shocks. Long-term growth has been supported by increased total factor productivity (TFP), grounded in efficiency gains, although capital accumulation has remained the main contributor to growth. While capital deepening did occur, investments in Information Communication and Technology (ICT) and in intangible assets that have high growth potential lagged those of peers. A skilled labor force has contributed more to growth in the case of Poland than it did in peer countries. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, has resulted in important learning losses, as observed throughout the world, and together with reversals in education reforms in recent years could weigh down on labor quality and productivity in the future.COVID-19
  • Publication
    Towards a Just Coal Transition: Labor Market Challenges and People’s Perspectives from Lower Silesia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) Christiaensen, Luc; Gajderowicz, Tomasz; Wrona, Sylwia
    Part of a three-region set of papers analyzing coal-related labor market challenges in Poland, this paper focuses on Lower Silesia. The findings call for a more territorial-oriented approach to brokering the coal transition, rather than a sectoral one. First, while the number of people directly and indirectly affected by coal mine closures in Lower Silesia (~5,500) is relatively small compared to the total regional labor force (<1%), affected workers are heavily concentrated geographically. Second, workers in heavily affected municipalities have lower foundational (but better technical) skills than their regional and national counterparts, and already operate in lagging local economies. Third, while eager to work, discrete choice experiments about their job attribute preferences show that they are averse to both, commuting and relocating for work, even though less so than in Silesia and Wielkopolska, the two other regions. Together this suggests that there are important welfare and political economic benefits to adequate job creation locally. The paper further advances a data-driven viable-job-matching tool specifically tailored to the Polish labor market and illustrates how it could be used to assess the potential of local labor markets and future investments to absorb the coal-affected workers accounting for their skills profile, re/upskilling needs and job attribute preferences.
  • Publication
    Air Quality Management in Poland
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-01) World Bank
    Despite significant efforts to reduce polluting air emissions, during and after the economic transition in the 1990s, Poland remains home to many of the most polluted cities in the European Union (EU). This report examines the nature and magnitude of ambient air pollution (AAP) in Poland. It provides estimates of the health burden, and economic cost associated with the health impacts, of ambient air pollution i.e., particulate matter (PM) both at national and regional or voivodeship levels in Poland. It also explores the roles of various sources of air pollution emissions on ambient air quality in Poland. With emphasis on the critical residential sector, this report analyses the likely impacts of national and EU legislative scenarios on future pollution emissions and ambient air quality in Poland. In addition, the report performs a demonstrative cost-benefit analysis of selected interventions to reduce AAP in residential and transport sectors and from point sources in the voivodeships that bear the heaviest burden of the impacts of AAP. Institutional factors that affect the effectiveness of ambient air quality management are discussed. Finally, policy recommendations for air pollution prevention, reduction and abatement are presented. The current study estimates that 25,280 - 44,811 deaths were caused by ambient PM2.5 pollution in Poland in 2016. The analysis applied two methodologies: (i) the approach from the 2016 Global Burden of Disease study; and (ii) the approach used by the EEA in their 2018 study. GBD studies analyze the health risks attributable to environmental factors, for different years, for most countries by linking environmental factors with the burden of disease attributable to them. Consistent with the GBD methodology, the analysis in this chapter applies a conservative approach by calculating premature, age-specific mortality from five diseases - ischemic heart disease, stroke, COPD, lung cancer, lower respiratory illness, that are directly linked to PM pollution. By contrast, the EEA approach calculates all-cause or non-accidental mortality (i.e., all deaths excluding poisoning, suicide and war), and assumes a linear relationship between mortality and PM concentration for population above age 30. The morbidity health burden is estimated in this report using HRAPIE recommended methodology (WHO, 2013) that focuses on acute bronchitis for children, chronic bronchitis for adults, cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions and lost work days caused by PM air pollution.
  • Publication
    Fighting Smog: Energy Efficiency and Anti-Smog in Single Family Buildings in Poland
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-05) World Bank Group
    The most cost-effective way to reduce both particulate and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is to couple switching from noncompliant solid fuel boilers to gas boilers, heat pumps, renewable energy (RE) heating systems such as biomass, wherever possible, and compliant solid fuel boilers, as mandated in the anti-smog resolutions, with thermal retrofits of the single family building (SFB). Anti-smog resolutions and enforcement are key to create market demand for boiler replacement and fuel switching, and solid fuel quality standards are essential to reduce air pollution. For the eligible poor SFBs, the government can provide 90-100 percent of subsidies for boiler replacement, fuel switching, and thermal retrofits, channeled through municipalities. For the non-poor SFBs, the government can provide 20 percent subsidy for fuel switching to gas, heat pumps, and RE systems and thermal retrofit, together with tax incentives, channeled through commercial banks who will provide loans for the remaining investment. The anti-smog and energy efficiency are long-term efforts, and the required subsidies can be programmed over a 10-year time period. It is essential to coordinate the use of public funds from the government and European Union (EU) at both the national and regional levels, and it is recommended that a national fund for anti-smog and energy efficiency be established to pool various funding resources. Finally, technical assistance, capacity building, and public education and awareness campaigns are critical to the success of the anti-smog and energy efficiency program.
  • Publication
    Energy Efficiency : Lessons Learned from Success Stories
    (2013-01-05) Stuggins, Gary; Sharabaroff, Alexander; Semikolenova, Yadviga
    This study is designed to analyze the energy efficiency policies in seven countries that were successful in achieving low energy intensities or in reducing their energy intensity considerably. The study analyzes the evolution of the energy intensity of these countries from 1990 to 2007, identifying points of inflection in the progress towards improvements. Changes to the policy agenda immediately upstream are explored in an effort to identify cause and affect relationships in energy efficiency improvements. Although direct relationships are difficult to isolate, cross country analyses that point to similar successes among a variety of countries give some confidence that these policies have contributed to reducing energy needs. The energy efficiency of new buildings is relatively easily and in expensively addressed by setting standards: making a new building energy efficient typically adds only 5 percent to the total cost. The purpose of this study is to determine what policy changes make a difference in countries' energy in tensity. The starting point for the analysis was the evolution of countries' energy intensity over time to identify inflection points when notable changes took place. Given that the inflection point could have been caused by external price shocks or structural changes, these causes were analyzed and removed from further consideration. Then changes to the policy agenda during identified periods were explored in an effort to identify cause and affect relationships in energy efficiency improvements.