Water Papers

183 items available

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Water Papers are produced by the Water Global Practice, taking up the work of the predecessor Water Unit, Transport, Water and ICT Department, Sustainable Development Vice Presidency.

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Troubled Tariffs: Revisiting Water Pricing for Affordable and Sustainable Water Services

2021-12-02, Andres, Luis A., Misra, Smita, Joseph, George, Thibert, Michael, Fenwick, Crystal

Tariffs are essential but not the only pathway to cost recovery, addressing affordability, and managing water conservation. To maximize their potential, they must be well designed, complemented by appropriate instruments, adequately regulated, and understood by customers. This report builds upon that one, and provides policy makers with the information needed to design better tariffs to further the economic efficiency, affordability, and environmental sustainability of water supply services. Through a layered and comprehensive analysis of the most prevalent tariff structures, it provides policy makers with specific guidance on pricing water supply services in response to the sector’s often-competing goals. This document comprises a synthesis of fifteen unique research papers that, combined, articulate a step-by-step thought process for designing effective tariffs with a view to achieving sustainable development goal (SDG) 6.

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Water in Circular Economy and Resilience: The Case of Phnom Penh, Cambodia

2021-05-23, World Bank

This case study is part of a series prepared by the World Bank’s Water Global Practice to highlight existing experiences in the water sector. The purpose of the series is to showcase one or more Two of the main pillars of a circular economy are resource efficiency and zero (or minimum) waste. By significantly reducing water losses and improving operational efficiency, the Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority (PPWSA) is embracing circular economy principles toward a more sustainable future.of the elements that can contribute toward a Water in Circular Economy and Resilience (WICER) system. This case focuses on the experience of Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

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Joining Forces to Combat Protracted Crises: Humanitarian and Development Support for Water and Sanitation Providers in the Middle East and North Africa

2021-02-05, World Bank, ICRC, UNICEF

Protracted crises in urban contexts of the Middle East and North Africa region present a growing challenge for water supply and sanitation (WSS) service providers and, in turn, the governments and international organizations that support them. The protracted nature of crisis in countries characterized by fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) transcends conventional notions of (pre-, during, and post-) crisis management. This report examines five pernicious problems identified by WSS service providers operating in protracted crisis in the Middle East and North Africa region. The five problems are: (1) inadequately governed water resources management; (2) aggressive competition from alternative providers (tanker trucks), undermining network services; (3) paralysis of high-tech wastewater treatment plants; (4) escalating energy costs of off-grid generation; and (5) the cashflow crunch as service provider costs jump and revenues fall. The pernicious problems are shown to stem from precrisis vulnerabilities that have their origins in the rapid period of urbanization and infrastructure expansion across the Middle East and North Africa region. Humanitarian and development actors should strengthen their partnerships in both anticipating and responding to protracted crises. Strengthening humanitarian-development partnerships to support WSS service providers in these ways will address key aspects of precrisis resilience building and also of resilience (re)building in protracted crisis.

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Water Scarcity in Morocco: Analysis of Key Water Challenges

2020-01, Taheripour, Farzad, Tyner, Wallace E., Haqiqi, Iman, Sajedinia, Ehsanreza

Morocco is expected to be faced with a major water shortfall prompted by either expansion in demand for water or reduction in precipitation induced by climate change. This paper examines the economywide impacts of these factors for Morocco. It uses a computable general equilibrium model augmented with submodules that trace consumption of water by uses and land allocation across sectors including crops, livestock, and forestry. Results show that water scarcity and changes in crop yields induced by climate change could reduce the GDP of Morocco up to 6.7 billion US dollars per year at 2016 constant prices and eliminate many job opportunities, in particular in the rural areas of this country. Only a portion of these negative impacts can be removed with improvements in water use efficiency. The factors mentioned above will reduce productivity of Morocco’s cropland and have the potential to reduce irrigated areas. Due to these changes, production of crops and food products are expected to fall, with increases in crop prices by up to 14.3 percent, assuming other factors being equal. Investment in water use efficiency practices that save water, in particular in agricultural activities, and shifting toward more valuable and less water intensive crops can help to partially mitigate these adverse impacts.

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Water in Circular Economy and Resilience

2021-09-15, Delgado, Anna, Rodriguez, Diego J., Amadei, Carlo A., Makino, Midori

Rethinking urban water through the circular economy and resilience lenses offers an opportunity to transform the urban water sector and deliver water supply and sanitation services in a more sustainable, inclusive, efficient, and resilient way. Circular Economy principles have emerged as a response to the current unsustainable linear model of "take, make, consume, and waste." In a circular economy, the full value of water – as a service, an input to processes, a source of energy and a carrier of nutrients and other materials – is recognized and captured. This report presents the Water in Circular Economy and Resilience (WICER) Framework together with global case studies that show the benefits of becoming circular and resilient. It describes the key actions needed to achieve three main outcomes: 1) deliver resilient and inclusive services, 2) design out waste and pollution, and 3) preserve and regenerate natural systems. The report sets out to demystify circular economy by showing that both high-income and low-income countries can benefit from it.

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Water in Circular Economy and Resilience: The Cases of Tugu Tirta and Adhya Tirta Batam, Indonesia

2021-03-18, World Bank

There are close to four hundred water utilities in Indonesia with varied performance and capacity but only around half are considered well performing. Inefficient operations has been identified as one of the key issues hampering performance and reducing utilities’ capacity to provide reliable water supply services. If not addressed, water utilities’ inefficiency could hamper government efforts to achieve development targets. High rates of nonrevenue water (NRW) pose a major challenge to the operational efficiency of many of Indonesia’s water utilities. This case study is part of a series prepared by the World Bank’s Water Global Practice to highlight existing experiences in the water sector. The purpose of the series is to showcase one or more of the elements that can contribute toward a Water in Circular Economy and Resilience (WICER) system. This case focuses on interventions on the utility’s supply side to increase efficiency and minimize waste.

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Moldova: Water Security Diagnostic and Future Outlook

2020-11-18, Smets, Susanna, Midgley, Amelia, Mao, Zhimin, Vladicescu, Veaceslav, Neumann, James E., Strzepek, Ken, Pricop, Felicia

Over the past two decades Moldova has achieved major development results: poverty more than halved between 2007 and 2014, and shared prosperity for the poorest households rose sharply. Yet Moldova’s growth model is volatile, unsustainable, and is losing strength. Water underpins much of Moldova’s ability to rekindle dynamism in its economy and to provide outcomes for the health and well-being of its people and environment. Yet gaps remain in understanding the country’s water resources endowments. This diagnostic suggests that in 2018 water availability is not a binding constraint to development. Even in the presence of future changes in demand, there are limited or manageable physical constraints to water security. Going beyond a focus on the water balance, this report assesses Moldova’s water security and identifies important water-related challenges that may hinder progress in economic and human development. Moldova’s water security is threatened by poor infrastructure and suboptimal institutional performance. Through an assessment of service delivery, water resources management and risk mitigation, and an analysis of institutional arrangements and sector expenditure data, this diagnostic establishes a set of policy recommendations on how water should be sustained and leveraged to support Moldova’s development. This report provides a new, comprehensive, and balanced view of water security in Moldova, highlighting the complex water issues that Moldova must tackle to improve its water security. It seeks to elevate water security as an issue critical for national development by providing stakeholders with a stocktaking and outlook on water-related risks, and opportunities in which water can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction.

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Water in Circular Economy and Resilience: The Case of Dakar, Senegal

2021-09-09, World Bank

This case study is part of a series prepared by the World Bank’s Water Global Practice to highlight existing experiences in the water sector. The purpose of the series is to showcase one or more of the elements that can contribute toward a Water in Circular Economy and Resilience (WICER) system. This case focuses on the experience of Dakar, Senegal.

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Water in Circular Economy and Resilience: The Case of Chennai, India

2021-03-17, World Bank

Chennai, a city on the southeastern coast of India and the state capital of Tamil Nadu, has one of the world’s fastest-growing economies. Chennai is the automotive hub for India and is also home to several other industries ranging from petrochemicals to hardware manufacturing, textiles, and apparel. Because of urbanization and economic growth, Chennai’s population has increased more than fifty percent over the past two decades. The city’s rapid growth has created several water challenges. This case study is part of a series prepared by the World Bank’s Water Global Practice to highlight existing experiences in the water sector. The purpose of the series is to showcase one or more of the elements that can contribute toward a Water in Circular Economy and Resilience (WICER) system. This case study focuses on the experience of Chennai in India.

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Testing, Piloting, and Validation of the Rural Water Indicator Global Framework in the African Context

2020-03-12, Banks, Brian, Mendez-Castillo, Ethel, Vargas-Ramirez, Miguel, Zimmermann, Sabrina, Loughnan, Libbet

This document presents the findings of the pilot conducted in Burkina Faso, Kenya, and Sierra Leone to determine the feasibility and utility of the indicators proposed by the World Bank in the Rural Water Metrics Global Framework. Through standard indicators, the proposed framework aims to facilitate improvements in national and global reporting and analysis, which would improve rural water services around the world. This document provides background on the framework; shows how it relates to other efforts to harmonize rural water data; and outlines development of the framework. It also describes the pilot—its methodology, findings, and limitations—and offers recommendations regarding the indicators themselves; suggests an implementation approach; and proposes a pathway for collection of the data using integration into national monitoring framework.