Water Papers

183 items available

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Water Papers are produced by the Water Global Practice, taking up the work of the predecessor Water Unit, Transport, Water and ICT Department, Sustainable Development Vice Presidency.

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
  • Publication
    Governance in Irrigation and Drainage: Concepts, Cases, and Action-Oriented Approaches—A Practitioner’s Resource
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-05-01) Waalewijn, Pieter; Trier, Remi; Denison, Jonathan; Siddiqi, Yasmin; Vos, Jeroen; Amjad, Eeman; Schulte, Mik
    Irrigated farming is central to meeting the world's food and fodder needs and will be even more important in delivering on food security and water sustainability development priorities in the future. High population growth, climate change, increasing socio-economic growth, and water stress are key drivers of change. Although irrigation covers only 6.5 percent of the total land used for agriculture, it supports production of forty percent of the world's food and fodder output, with a gross value of fifty-five percent of global agricultural produce. Improving irrigation performance is a priority strategy in addressing rural poverty and in mitigating climate -change impacts, especially for the most vulnerable. Investment in irrigation has seen renewed interest in the past decade, and irrigation and drainage (I and D) governance emerging as a key focus for improved performance. Institutional failures and poor irrigation performance have been blamed on low capacity, perverse incentives, misdirected policies, and weak implementation but these are only contributing factors. Investments in institutions of the past have aimed to fix the institutions, with a focus on form and on organizational structure. The central message of this resource book is that functions, processes, and related capabilities must be the priority focus of all irrigation institutional interventions.
  • Publication
    Modernizing Weather, Water, and Climate Services: A Road Map for Bhutan
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-07-21) World Bank Group
    The main objective of this technical assistance paper is to provide recommendations to the Royal Government of Bhutan for modernizing its hydrometeorological services, including capacity strengthening for disasterrelated early warning systems (EWSs). The DHMS does not have a national hydromet services policy but is in the process of preparing a strategic document to guide its modernization and institutional reform process. This technical assistance paper contributes to this process and proposes a road map for transforming the DHMS into a modern service delivery agency.
  • Publication
    The Water Portfolio of the World Bank: Insights from a Review of Fiscal Year 2011
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-06) Scheierling, Susanne M.; Lyon, Kimberly N.
    This report presents insights from the FY11 review of the World Bank s water portfolio. The report includes a methodological section followed by reviews of four broad areas: the water related commitments managed by the World Bank Group (WBG) for FY011; the water-related commitments of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and of the International Development Association (IDA) for FY11; water-related projects approved in FY11; and analytic and advisory activities (AAA), in particular economic and sector work (ESW) and technical assistance (TA), delivered in FY11. The focus of the report is on the new IBRD and IDA commitments in FY11, which are analyzed not only based on data provided in the World Bank s project database but also with data generated by reviewing the Project Appraisal Documents (PADs) using a newly developed questionnaire. Some of the key findings of the FY11 review are the following: Water-related IBRD and IDA commitments comprised about 95% of the overall WBG managed commitments for water. From FY02 to FY11 they grew more than five-fold, from US$1.3 billion to US$7.4 billion largely driven by increased commitments for water supply and sanitation. In FY11 a total of 105 water-related IBRD and IDA projects were approved. Commitments by region were largest for the East Asia and Pacific Region (EAP) and the South Asia Region (SAR) with 30% and 29%, respectively. With regard to the number of projects, Africa was by far the leading Region with 33 projects. Of the 105 water-related projects, only 22% were mapped to the Water Sector Board (WAT) and most of these were water supply and sanitation projects.
  • Publication
    Investing in Water Infrastructure : Capital, Operations and Maintenance
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-11) Rodriguez, Diego J.; van den Berg, Caroline; McMahon, Amanda
    This paper provides background information for development practitioners in the water and other infrastructure sectors. It outlines the major challenges related to financing the gap in global water infrastructure, including those systems that provide urban and rural water supply, and sanitation and irrigation services. Water infrastructure finance includes costs for capital works as well as the operations and maintenance costs that motivate sustainable service delivery. Section one introduces the linkages between water infrastructure and growing global challenges, including food and energy security as well as climate change. Section two describes investment needs in the sector and details various traditional funding sources. Section three proposes a five step reform cycle for making better use of limited funding in the sector. Tools for making these improvements are outlined in section four. The paper concludes with section five, a summary of the challenges and recommendations for the way forward.
  • Publication
    Achieving Financial Sustainability and Recovering Costs in Bank Financed Water Supply and Sanitation and Irrigation Projects
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-06) McPhail, Alexander; Locussol, Alain R.; Perry, Chris
    This note is a partial response to the above mentioned 2010 Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation. It covers the specific issues to be addressed in the Water supply and Sanitation (WSS) sector and in the irrigation sector in two distinct parts, because if WSS and irrigation have some common features, there are many distinctions to be made. Among the various water-using sectors, that include navigation, fisheries, hydropower, rain fed agriculture, irrigated agriculture, WSS, and more generally 'the environment', cost recovery issues are of primary concern, and are the focus for this note, in the WSS and irrigation sectors. This preliminary background Note is divided in four parts: a 'history' of the call for financial sustainability and cost recovery and the parallel documenting of the lack of progress. This section ends with what this Note hopes to achieve in the face of what is clearly a deeply rooted problem; an outline of options to be considered for achieving financial sustainability of WSS service providers and recovering the costs of the WSS service through tariffs, i.e., from users and through subsidies; a discussion on what makes financial sustainability of irrigation projects different from WSS projects; and a summary of recommendations to teams involved in the identification, preparation, appraisal and supervision of water projects and of practical measures and actions that both the water sector board and the water anchor could take to help improve the Bank's track record in achieving and financial sustainability of the water projects it finances.
  • Publication
    Managing the Invisible : Understanding and Improving Groundwater Governance
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-06) Wijnen, Marcus; Augeard, Benedicte; Hiller, Bradley; Ward, Christopher; Huntjens, Patrick
    Groundwater is playing an increasingly important role in domestic, industrial and agricultural water supply. With the advent of the tube well and driven by the rapid growth of demand for agricultural and municipal water, annual global groundwater extraction has increased in recent decades from 100 k
  • Publication
    Water Security for Central Kosovo: The Kosovo-Ibër River Basin and Ibër Lepenc Water System
    (Washington, DC, 2012-03) World Bank
    Kosovo is a small and young state that gained an interim United Nations (UN)-administered status in the wake of the Dayton peace accord only in 1999; it declared independence in 2008. Compared to neighboring countries, it is still lacking in its basic infrastructure and its administrative and technical skills. In addition, with the onset of the War in Yugoslavia in 1992 most investment and normal maintenance came to a standstill. Much of the publicly owned infrastructure fell into disrepair or was vandalized, but private investments led to a construction boom which, however, is leading to many environmental problems. The government is committed to reconstruction and to the development of a peaceful state. It also intends to align with EU policies. Thus, the study has the specific objectives to: (i) assist the government to improve its river basin planning and management by providing (for demonstration purposes) a replicable tool and simulation model for integrated river basin planning and management; and (ii) support the government in its identification of priority measures of structural and non-structural nature to help strengthen the water resources sector performance. The source(s) for the financing of the identified projects will need to be identified further by the Government as the World Bank has not committed to involvement in the sector.
  • Publication
    Estimating Relative Benefits of Differing Strategies for Management of Wastewater in Lower Egypt Using Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-02) World Bank
    The report uses a theoretical model of a typical drainage basin, but the approach could be applied to many of the drainage basins managed by the holding company for water and wastewater in Egypt. This study set out to assess the relative health impacts of different wastewater management strategies on health in the Nile delta region using an approach similar to that used in the Ghana. The ultimate objective was to develop a framework for long-term investment planning based on monitoring of health and productivity impacts of proposed Bank operations which could be included in project Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) systems. This will equip task teams to assess the risks and opportunities which arise due to the proposed shift from on-site to networked sanitation in four governorates where the Bank has wastewater operations. A secondary objective was to assess the extent to which existing legislation supports health riskbased planning. The conclusions of the study provide an indication of how such methods could increasingly be used to enable the selection of cost-effective and appropriate wastewater management strategies.
  • Publication
    Climate Variability and Change : A Basin Scale Indicator Approach to Understanding the Risk to Water Resources Development and Management
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-09) Strzepek, Kenneth; McCluskey, Alyssa; Boehlert, Brent; Jacobsen, Michael; Fant IV, Charles
    The impact of climate change is likely to have considerable implications for water resource planning, as well as adding to the risks to water infrastructure systems and effecting return on investments. Attention is increasingly being paid to adaptation strategies at the regional and basin level; however, the current paucity of information regarding the potential risk to hydrological systems at this scale presents a substantial challenge for effective water resources planning and investment. This study is intended to help bridge the gap between high-level climate change predictions and the needs of decision-makers, including World Bank Task Team Leaders, government agencies, investors, and national economic development planners, whose programs and investments will be affected by basin- and regional-level impacts of climate change on water resources and related infrastructures. This study evaluates the effects of climate change on six hydrological indicators across 8,413 basins in World Bank client countries. These indicators, mean annual runoff (MAR), basin yield, annual high flow, annual low flow, groundwater (base-flow), and reference crop water deficit, were chosen based on their relevance to the wide range of water resource development projects planned for the future. To generate a robust, high-resolution understanding of possible risk, this analysis examines relative changes in all variables from the historical baseline (1961 to 1999) to the 2030s and 2050s for the full range of 56 General Circulation Model (GCM) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) combinations evaluated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).
  • Publication
    India Groundwater Governance Case Study
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-06) Garduño, Héctor; Romani, Saleem; Sengupta, Buba; Tuinhof, Albert; Davis, Richard
    Groundwater comprises 97 percent of the worlds readily accessible freshwater and provides the rural, urban, industrial and irrigation water supply needs of 2 billion people around the world. As the more easily accessed surface water resources are already being used, pressure on groundwater is growing. In the last few decades, this pressure has been evident through rapidly increasing pumping of groundwater, accelerated by the availability of cheap drilling and pumping technologies and, in some countries, energy subsidies that distort decisions about exploiting groundwater. This accelerated growth in groundwater exploitation unplanned, unmanaged, and largely invisible has been dubbed by prominent hydro geologists the silent revolution. It is a paradox that such a vast and highly valuable resource which is likely to become even more important as climate change increasingly affects surface water sources has been so neglected by governments and the development community at a time when interest and support for the water sector as a whole is at an all-time high. This case study is a background paper for the World Bank economic and sector analysis (ESW) entitled too big to fail: the paradox of groundwater governance that aims to understand and address the paradox at the heart of the groundwater governance challenge in order to elevate the need for investing in and promoting proactive reforms toward its management. The project examines the impediments to better governance of groundwater, and explores opportunities for using groundwater to help developing countries adapt to climate change. Its recommendations will guide the Bank in its investments on groundwater and provide the Bank's contributions to the Global Environment Facility (GEF) funded global project groundwater governance: a framework for country action. The case study focused on the national, state and local levels. At the national and state levels, it analyzed the policy, legal, and institutional arrangements to identify the demand and supply management and incentive structures that have been established for groundwater management. At the local level, it assessed the operations, successes, and constraints facing local institutions in the governance of a number of aquifers within peninsula India, on the coast and on the plain of the Ganges river valley.