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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-03) Chase, Claire ; Damania, RichardWater-related diseases are a major health burden for populations, especially the poor. Meeting global aspirations for poverty reduction will require addressing the global water and sanitation challenge. This discussion paper provides an overview of the poverty-related impacts of inadequate water supply and sanitation services, and highlights the new policy challenges that have emerged in a more populated, polluted, and urbanized world with finite water resources. New approaches that assure sustained changes in individual behavior, more equitable access to services, and incentives for improved water resource stewardship are needed.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2015-03-28) World BankIndonesia has made significant increase in rural sanitation access and services from 20.64 percent in 2006 to 44.09 percent in 2013. A study conducted in 2012 estimated a capacity gap of 12,000-18,000 sanitation professionals (from engineers to community workers) to meet the 2015 millennium development goal (MDG) targets, with 30 percent of community health centers not having frontline sanitation personnel. Capacity building programs have so far been largely conducted by technical units, projects, and local government offices. Following an assessment on how and where to best address the issues, the technical assistance (TA) recommended a transformative approach, away from project-based cascading training where training is done at national level and then repeated and cascaded to provincial, district, sub-district, and village levels to an institutionalized capacity building program. The institutionalization of capacity building program targeted two primary audiences: future professionals (pre-service) addressed through integrating national strategy for community-based total sanitation (STBM) modules into health polytechnic schools curriculae and current professionals (inservice) addressed through accredited and certified training programs, with an additional e-learning scheme to reach out to a wider group of professionals and interested parties. The support to scale-up the use of the STBM human resource capacity building system can be provided via a circular letter of Ministry of Health (MoH) to local health offices and STBM partners. Continuous support through the MoH system to follow-up and evaluate outcomes of training and education will be key to sustainability and roll-out across all provinces of Indonesia.