Water Papers

183 items available

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Water Papers are produced by the Water Global Practice, taking up the work of the predecessor Water Unit, Transport, Water and ICT Department, Sustainable Development Vice Presidency.

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    Governance in Irrigation and Drainage: Concepts, Cases, and Action-Oriented Approaches—A Practitioner’s Resource
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-05-01) Waalewijn, Pieter ; Trier, Remi ; Denison, Jonathan ; Siddiqi, Yasmin ; Vos, Jeroen ; Amjad, Eeman ; Schulte, Mik
    Irrigated farming is central to meeting the world's food and fodder needs and will be even more important in delivering on food security and water sustainability development priorities in the future. High population growth, climate change, increasing socio-economic growth, and water stress are key drivers of change. Although irrigation covers only 6.5 percent of the total land used for agriculture, it supports production of forty percent of the world's food and fodder output, with a gross value of fifty-five percent of global agricultural produce. Improving irrigation performance is a priority strategy in addressing rural poverty and in mitigating climate -change impacts, especially for the most vulnerable. Investment in irrigation has seen renewed interest in the past decade, and irrigation and drainage (I and D) governance emerging as a key focus for improved performance. Institutional failures and poor irrigation performance have been blamed on low capacity, perverse incentives, misdirected policies, and weak implementation but these are only contributing factors. Investments in institutions of the past have aimed to fix the institutions, with a focus on form and on organizational structure. The central message of this resource book is that functions, processes, and related capabilities must be the priority focus of all irrigation institutional interventions.
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    Vietnam: Toward a Safe, Clean, and Resilient Water System
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-05-01) World Bank Group
    Prudent economic policies, combined with the enabling conditions created by a high endowment of water, have transformed Vietnam from a low income to a middle-income country within two decades. Though growth has produced vast benefits, it has also placed unrelenting pressures on water resources, which in turn lead to economic stresses. This report assesses how secure Vietnam’s water resources are and its economic implications and focuses on reducing the threats of “too little, too much, and too dirty.” Specifically, the report focuses on increasing water productivity in irrigated agriculture, water security and services for settlements, and on how Vietnam manages water quality and pollution issues, as well as climate change adaptation, disaster risks, and risks from infrastructure gaps and vulnerabilities. Recognizing that water governance is fundamental in addressing Vietnam’s water challenges, this report analyzes the current governance of the water sector to inform the development of strategies, provide an integrated view of challenges, and identify the most fundamental shifts needed to achieve national water security. Going forward, greater emphasis will have to be given to policy enforcement and to the incentives needed to assure greater compliance. The solutions suggested by this analysis are clustered around seven recommendations. This report was developed in close cooperation with the Government of Vietnam.
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    The Art of Knowledge Exchange: A Results-Focused Planning Guide for Development Practitioners in the Water Sector
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06-01) Kumar, Shobha ; Coombes, Yolande ; Vovides, Yianna ; Crabbe, Richard A. B.
    This edition, based on the original Art of Knowledge of Knowledge Exchange: A Results-Focused Planning Guide for Development Practitioners, is customized for practitioners in the water sector to facilitate designing, implementing, and measuring results from their knowledge exchange initiatives. This guide includes and refers to case studies and other examples of successful knowledge exchange initiatives in the water sector and also the lessons learned from implementing these initiatives for high development impact. It also reflects the experience of dozens of World Bank Group staff, knowledge and learning professionals, government officials, and other international and development practitioners who have successfully integrated knowledge exchange as a part of a larger change process.
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    The Cost of Irrigation Water in the Jordan Valley
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-03-31) van den Berg, Caroline ; Al Nimer, Sana Kh. H. Agha
    The purpose of this study was to determine the financial cost of irrigation water in the Jordan Valley and the corresponding impact of higher water prices on farming. The analysis shows that JVA needs significant tariff increases to be able to attain a more financially sustainable footing. In case JVA wants to at least cover its operating and maintenance costs in 2013, it will require JD 0.108 per m3 - assuming that the current cross-subsidies and current inefficiency levels remain unchanged. Yet, if the JVA would be able to reduce its billing and collection inefficiencies, the required irrigation water tariff drops to JD 0.066 per m3. The more efficient JVA becomes in providing irrigation water, the smaller the required tariff increases. The JVA can improve its efficiency by (i) changing billing and collection practices; (ii) change in the revenue policies; and (iii) efficiency gains in the delivery of JVA services. The impact of tariff increases on farmers’ incomes is in general very moderate because water costs make up only a small part of the total cost of farming. Certain cropping patterns will be much more affected by the tariff increases than others. It is especially crops that tend to consume large volumes of water (citrus), that will feel the impact of the irrigation water tariffs. Because the agricultural sector in Jordan is under stress, any government policy to rationalize irrigation water subsidies should where possible try to increase the resilience of farmers. The farmer survey found that 17 percent of the survey respondents could be classified as poor for which specific measures may be needed to help them cope with the effect of higher water prices.