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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12-10) Desbureaux, Sebastien ; Damania, Richard ; Rodella, Aude-Sophie ; Russ, Jason ; Zaveri, EshaDeclining water quality can impact the economy in various ways. Impacts can be found in the health sector, where labor productivity can be affected, in agriculture, where the quality and quantity of food produced can be reduced, and in tourism, real estate, aquaculture/fisheries and other sectors which rely on environmental quality and ecosystem services. Despite these well-known impacts, finding economy-wide affects of water quality on economic activity can be elusive. In this paper we attempt to fill this gap by using a conventional empirical approach in contemporary environmental economics and new data on economic activity and water quality for nineteen countries from 1990-2014. The authors find that when rivers become very heavily polluted, regions downstream see reductions in economic growth, losing between 0.8 and 2.0 percent of economic growth. These losses imply that in many places, the costs of environmental degradation are severely under-estimated and well above efficient levels.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-07-21) World Bank GroupThe main objective of this technical assistance paper is to provide recommendations to the Royal Government of Bhutan for modernizing its hydrometeorological services, including capacity strengthening for disasterrelated early warning systems (EWSs). The DHMS does not have a national hydromet services policy but is in the process of preparing a strategic document to guide its modernization and institutional reform process. This technical assistance paper contributes to this process and proposes a road map for transforming the DHMS into a modern service delivery agency.
Professionalization Contracts for Small Municipal Water Service Providers in India: Business Model Development(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-06) Ehrhardt, David ; Mugabi, Josses ; Kingdom, WilliamProfessionalization contracts are a new concept. The aim of these contracts is to enlist the support of specialized private firms in turning public water utilities into competent professional operators. This report looks at how the business model for such contracts may work. This report builds on fieldwork and consultation in India. The model described in this report reflects two weeks of meetings with water sector stakeholder in India, including a workshop held at the World Bank country office in Delhi on 22 March 2011. The report gives introduction in section one. It describes briefly the need for professionalization contracts in India, and the target market section two. It then summarizes what the contractor will do, and how this differs from traditional capacity building, as well as from traditional public private partnership (PPP) concepts such as management contracts section three. The report then describes the complementary policy and institutional reforms that will be needed at the state and local government levels to make professionalization contracts successful section four. Section five looks at the political economy of professionalization contracts, identifying risks, and how these risks can be mitigated through design of the institutional reforms and the business model. Section six then turns to the true business model aspects by describing indicative costs of the professionalization contract and the complementary investments required. Section seven considers what the sources of funding for these costs would be, and section eight goes on to explain how the contractor will be paid, and hence the incentives under which it will operate. Section nine looks at the market of potential contractors, and examines their incentives to participate. Finally, section ten sets out some considerations for developing the concept.