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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06) Borgomeo, Edoardo ; Jagerskog, Anders ; Talbi, Amal ; Wijnen, Marcus ; Hejazi, Mohamad ; Miralles-Wilhelm, FernandoWater, energy, and agriculture have been conventionally dealt with separately in investment planning. For each of these sectors, regulatory frameworks, organizations, and infrastructures have been put in place to address sector-specific challenges and demands. As the Middle East and North Africa works towards building a more sustainable future, a nexus approach that considers the risks and synergies among these sectors is needed. To demonstrate the added value of a nexus approach, this report applies scenario analysis and integrated assessment modelling of the water-energy-food nexus to the Middle East and North Africa. The analysis finds that water scarcity increases in all countries in the region over the coming decades, mostly due to growing demands. More importantly, the analysis finds that many countries in the region could run out of fossil groundwater by 2050 unless measures to curb unsustainable abstraction are implemented. The impacts of growing scarcity on agriculture are significant, with production projected to drop by 60 by 2050 in some countries. On the upside, reducing the dependence of the agricultural and energy sectors on water and transitioning to renewable energies can reduce water scarcity, at the same time reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This report is targeted to policy makers, the academic community, and a wider global audience interested in exploring the interactions between water, agriculture, and energy.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) World BankA set of case studies was prepared as part of the World Bank’s Water Global Practice initiative 'Wastewater. Shifting paradigms: from waste to resource' to document existing experiences in the water sector on the topic. The case studies highlight innovative financing and contractual arrangements, innovative regulations and legislation and innovative project designs that promote integrated planning, resource recovery and that enhance the financial and environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment plants. This case study documents Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-12) World BankReduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is fundamental to the mitigation of climate change. It has become increasingly important to estimate and report on GHG emissions to enable the implementation of mitigation measures to limit or reduce total emissions. In most cases, such estimation is fairly simple, using known emission factors per surface area or per produced energy unit. However, GHG emissions from reservoirs created for the purpose of electricity generation, water security, or flood protection are very difficult to estimate, and no single emission factor or formula can be applied. The purpose of this note is therefore to provide guidance to World Bank Group (WBG) staff on how to assess GHGs from reservoirs in preparation of dam infrastructure projects. The note discusses: (i) the major biogeochemical processes causing GHG emissions from reservoirs; (ii) the state of current knowledge, and (iii) recommendations for assessing GHG emissions caused by biogeochemical processes for planned reservoirs.