Transport Papers

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  • Publication
    Addressing Climate Change in Transport: Volume 2 : Pathway to Resilient Transport
    (World Bank, Hanoi, 2019-09-01) Oh, Jung Eun; Espinet Alegre, Xavier; Pant, Raghav; Koks, Elco E.; Russell, Tom; Schoenmakers, Roald; Hall, Jim W.
    Climate change is set to have profound effects on Vietnam’s development. With nearly sixty percent of its land area and seventy percent of population at risk of multiple natural hazards, Vietnam globally is among the most vulnerable countries to both chronic and extreme events. At the same time, as Vietnam’s economy grows, the country is becoming a significant emitter of greenhouse gases. While Vietnam’s absolute volume of emissions is still small compared to that of larger and richer countries, emissions are growing rapidly and disproportionate to its economy size. The transport sector plays a critical role in these recent trends. This study aims to set out a vision and strategy for climate-smart transport, in order to minimize the carbon footprint of the sector while ensuring its resilience against future risks. The analytical findings and recommendations are presented in two volumes of the report. The first volume provides how Vietnam can reduce its carbon emissions by employing a mix of diverse policies and investments, under varying levels of ambition and resources. The second volume provides a methodological framework to analyze network criticality and vulnerability, and to prioritize investments to enhance resilience.
  • Publication
    Addressing Climate Change in Transport: Volume 1 : Pathway to Low-Carbon Transport
    (World Bank, Hanoi, 2019-09-01) Oh, Jung Eun; Cordeiro, Maria; Rogers, John Allen; Nguyen, Khanh; Bongardt, Daniel; Dang, Ly Tuyet; Tuan, Vu Anh
    Climate change is set to have profound effects on Vietnam’s development. With nearly sixty percent of its land area and seventy percent of population at risk of multiple natural hazards, Vietnam globally is among the most vulnerable countries to both chronic and extreme events. At the same time, as Vietnam’s economy grows, the country is becoming a significant emitter of greenhouse gases. While Vietnam’s absolute volume of emissions is still small compared to that of larger and richer countries, emissions are growing rapidly and disproportionate to its economy size. The transport sector plays a critical role in these recent trends. This study aims to set out a vision and strategy for climate-smart transport, in order to minimize the carbon footprint of the sector while ensuring its resilience against future risks. The analytical findings and recommendations are presented in two volumes of the report. The first volume provides how Vietnam can reduce its carbon emissions by employing a mix of diverse policies and investments, under varying levels of ambition and resources. The second volume provides a methodological framework to analyze network criticality and vulnerability, and to prioritize investments to enhance resilience.
  • Publication
    Urban Transport Projects: Patterns and Trends in Lending, 1999-2009
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011) Mitric, Slobodan
    The study consisted of developing a compendium of profiles for all free-standing urban transport projects funded by the Bank in calendar years from 1999 through 2009, followed by a first-pass synthesis of patterns and trends. There were 50 such projects. In addition, profiles were done for several projects from this period which were classified as urban or transport, but with significant urban transport components. Also, profiles were done for several operations approved before 1999 or after 2009, because they formed organic sequences with some operations in the 1999-2009 batches, in the same city or the same country. In all, profiles were done for 56 operations. A list of these projects is in annex one. Full profiles are in annex two, grouped by the geographic region, and in the chronological order according to the date of loan approval. The sources consulted in writing the profiles included project appraisal documents, loan and project agreements, restructuring papers, and implementation completion reports. In addition to this introduction, the synthesis report has four chapters. In the next (second) chapter, a brief overview is provided of the batch of projects for which the profiles were done. Chapter three reviews urban transport programs by region. Chapter four presents outcome ratings for completed projects and issues related to their success or otherwise. Chapter five discusses the fit between the projects and a provisional version of the Bank's urban transport strategy.
  • Publication
    High-Speed Rail: The Fast Track to Economic Development?
    (World Bank, Beijing, 2010-07) Amos, Paul; Bullock, Dick; Sondhi, Jitendra
    A high-speed rail service can deliver competitive advantage over airlines for journeys of up to about 3 hours or 750 km, particularly between city pairs where airports are located far from city centres. One suitable type of corridor is that which connects two large cities 250-500 km apart. But another promising situation is a longer corridor that has very large urban centres located, say, every 150-300 km apart. On these longer corridors, typical of some being built in China, high-speed rail has the ability to serve multiple city-pairs, both direct and overlapping. The overall financial performance of high-speed train services depends on enough people being able to pay a premium to use them. In Japan there is a surcharge for high-speed rail which doubles the fare on conventional services. China high-speed train fares are about three times conventional train fares. But in order to generate the required volume of passengers it will usually be necessary not only to target the most affluent travelers but also to adopt a fare structure that is affordable for the middle income population and, if any spare capacity still exists, to offer discount tickets with restrictions on use and availability that can fill otherwise unused seats. The combination of supportive features that exist on the eastern plains of China including very high population density, rapidly growing disposable incomes, and the prevalence of many large cities in reasonable proximity to one another (creating not just one city-pair but a string of such pairs) are not found in most developing countries. Nor could all countries assemble the focused collective capacity building effort and the economies of scale in construction costs that arise when a government can commit the country, politically and economically, to a decades-long program over a vast land area. Even in China, the sustainability of railway debt arising from the program as it proceeds will need to be closely monitored and payback periods will not be short, as they cannot be for such "lumpy" and long-lived assets. But a combination of those factors that create favorable conditions of both demand and supply comes together in China in a way that is distinctly favorable to delivering a successful high-speed rail system.
  • Publication
    Domestic Trade Impacts of the Expansion of the National Expressway Network in China
    (Washington, DC, 2007-06) World Bank
    China's outstanding achievements in economic growth and poverty reduction over the last fifteen years have been well documented. A major element of that growth consisted of the development of its infrastructure, particularly transport. All modes of transport have seen their networks expanded, to provide the infrastructure needed to support the broader development goals. Among the surface modes (excluding pipelines or waterways), road transport has seen its share grow from 45 percent to 60 percent in terms of passenger-km and from 24 percent to 30 percent in terms of freight ton-km. From 1990 to 2005, during the period of the 8th, 9th and 10th Five-Year Plans, China completed nearly 41,000 km of high-grade tolled expressways comprising the national trunk highway system (NTHS), or as it is now called, the national expressway network (NEN). During this period approximately 400,000 km of local and township roads were also improved. This was achieved by investing upwards of US$40 billion per year, with about one third of that amount allocated to development of the NEN. Behind this overall strategy, the expressway plan seeks to connect all cities with more than 200,000 people, serving as facilitator of economic and social interactions as the economy comes to rely more and more on road transport. In prioritizing the selection of cities (nodes) to be connected, the planning process has incorporated economic and transport objectives (including trade and container traffic requirements, and tourism needs), giving special consideration to poorer regions and environmental issues. This will improve the regional integration of the economy and allow growth dynamics to expand from the coastal regions to the interior and western parts of the country.
  • Publication
    Launching Public Private Partnerships for Highways in Transition Economies
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2005-09) Queiroz, Cesar
    In many countries the private sector has been involved in financing infrastructure through concessions under a public-private partnership (PPP) program. PPP schemes, however, are somewhat underutilized in transition economies, where the potential financing gaps are significant and growing, and there seems to be an enormous potential for more private sector involvement in the financing and operation of highway assets in these countries. Institutions such as the World Bank can contribute to enhance private financing of road infrastructure through greater use of their guarantee power, in addition to supporting, when required, the public sector contribution to the construction cost of a PPP project through loans. Partial risk guarantees are particularly relevant in the context of seeking more private involvement in the financing of road infrastructure. This paper reviews potential applications of partial risk guarantees, the required legal framework (for example, concession law) for attracting private capital for PPP schemes, possible steps for a country to launch a program of private participation in highways, the concept of greenfield and road maintenance concession programs, and the treatment of unsolicited proposals. It also summarizes potential applications of the World Bank Toolkit for PPP in Highways as an instrument to help decision-makers and practitioners to define the best PPP approach for a specific country.
  • Publication
    Trade and Logistics in East Asia : A Development Agenda
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2003-06) Carruthers, Robin; Hummels, David
    This report is part of a strategy to promotes trade competitiveness within the East Asia and Pacific Region. It presents an overview of the logistics issues facing East Asia countries and proposes a development agenda for them. Based on the recognition that the countries have basic differences in their level of development, extent of openness, and composition of trade, it begins by discussing the benefits of improved logistics. The East Asian countries are organized into an action matrix, with an analysis of the logistics needs appropriate to each group. The country working papers (volumes 2, 3, & 5)discuss the assessment of preset logistics services and the impediments they impose upon, and opportunities they offer for, expanded trade, including policy reform proposals. The special report on ports (volume 4) addresses port development in relation to urban growth.
  • Publication
    Vietnam : Logistics Development, Trade Facilitation, and the Impact on Poverty Reduction
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2003-06-01) Namura Research Institute; Arnold, John; Stone, Jack I.
    This report is part of a strategy to promotes trade competitiveness within the East Asia and Pacific Region. It presents an overview of the logistics issues facing East Asia countries and proposes a development agenda for them. Based on the recognition that the countries have basic differences in their level of development, extent of openness, and composition of trade, it begins by discussing the benefits of improved logistics. The East Asian countries are organized into an action matrix, with an analysis of the logistics needs appropriate to each group. The country working papers (volumes 2, 3, & 5)discuss the assessment of preset logistics services and the impediments they impose upon, and opportunities they offer for, expanded trade, including policy reform proposals. The special report on ports (volume 4) addresses port development in relation to urban growth.
  • Publication
    Logistics Development and Trade Facilitation in Lao PDR
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2003-05) Arnold, John; Banomyong, Ruth; Ritthironk, Nipawis
    This report is part of a strategy to promotes trade competitiveness within the East Asia and Pacific Region. It presents an overview of the logistics issues facing East Asia countries and proposes a development agenda for them. Based on the recognition that the countries have basic differences in their level of development, extent of openness, and composition of trade, it begins by discussing the benefits of improved logistics. The East Asian countries are organized into an action matrix, with an analysis of the logistics needs appropriate to each group. The country working papers (volumes 2, 3, & 5)discuss the assessment of preset logistics services and the impediments they impose upon, and opportunities they offer for, expanded trade, including policy reform proposals. The special report on ports (volume 4) addresses port development in relation to urban growth.
  • Publication
    East Asia Ports in their Urban Context
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2003-01) Rafferty, Laurel
    This report is part of a strategy to promotes trade competitiveness within the East Asia and Pacific Region. It presents an overview of the logistics issues facing East Asia countries and proposes a development agenda for them. Based on the recognition that the countries have basic differences in their level of development, extent of openness, and composition of trade, it begins by discussing the benefits of improved logistics. The East Asian countries are organized into an action matrix, with an analysis of the logistics needs appropriate to each group. The country working papers (volumes 2, 3, & 5)discuss the assessment of preset logistics services and the impediments they impose upon, and opportunities they offer for, expanded trade, including policy reform proposals. The special report on ports (volume 4) addresses port development in relation to urban growth.