Transport Papers

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From Connectivity to Opportunity: Leveraging regional corridors to support growth and development in Guinea

2023-11-06, World Bank

The objectives of this study are to (1) assess the impact of regional and internal connectivity on jobs and access to services and (2) to provide recommendations for policy reforms and investments. This analysis uses quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand the opportunities that better connectivity provides for secondary cities in Guinea,what factors might constrain the potential for growth and,how policy makers at different levels of government should respond to maximize the benefits of economic corridors. This analysis also aims to provide a better understanding of the relative impact of transport improvements and direct trade facilitation reforms. Finally, the study assesses complementary reforms, investments, and overall policies to develop practical and implementable recommendations that could be deployed to enhance the returns to better trade and connectivity to urban areas in Guinea.

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Paths Toward Green Mobility: Perspectives on Women and Rail Transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia

2022, Kurshitashvili, Nato, Gonzalez Carvajal, Karla, Saunders, Kelly, Ait Bihi Ouali, Laila

This report explores two aspects of the rail transport sector - mobility, and employment--in the countries of Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina from a gender perspective. It examines issues of rail transport for women both as passengers, and as sector employees. It highlights the urgency of transport decarbonization for the Western Balkan countries (WB6) in the context of the European Union’s Green Deal,2 which aims to achieve net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050. This report shows that Covid-19 has decimated rail transport use at a time when global and WB6 regional efforts must dramatically increase their movement toward decarbonization. The study confirms that the pandemic has drawn people away from public transport including rail, and toward more carbon-intensive individual modes of transportation. It also makes a rarely made connection between getting more women into the transport sector and improved mobility for women. Rail services remain male-dominated across the world. The report finds clear parallels between women’s employment and mobility. Finally, while this study focuses on women and rail transport, it has the benefit of making rail more attractive for other cohorts as well, including those who primarily use private vehicles (mainly men).

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Modern Railway Services in Africa: Building Traffic - Building Value

2020-09-25, World Bank

The role of rail in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) changed considerably in the latter years of the twentieth century. Although some upgrading has occurred, most SSA networks outside South Africa are still operating to the standards to which they were originally constructed. To encourage the commercialization of the railways and reduce the burden on government finances, several countries concessioned their rail system from the 1990’s on. However, rail infrastructure improvements which encourage modal shift generate benefits from lower road congestion and maintenance costs, fewer road accidents, less pollution, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. In recent years, many governments in Africa have therefore taken a renewed interest in rehabilitating and upgrading their railways, or in constructing new ones. They desire to improve their logistics efficiency and promote a green mode of transport that is less carbon intensive than road. The railways in Africa can be divided into four broad groups: mineral railways; new railways; legacy railways; and commuter railways. This note reviews the current situation and discusses the challenges and possible approaches to address them.

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Delivering Road Safety in Bangladesh: Leadership Priorities and Initiatives to 2030

2020-02-20, World Bank

High fatality and injury rates on Bangladesh’s roads are undermining the remarkable progress that this South Asian nation has made on boosting economic growth and reducing poverty.

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The Container Port Performance Index 2022: A Comparable Assessment of Performance Based on Vessel Time in Port

2023-05-18, World Bank

The purpose of the CPPI is to help identify opportunities to improve a terminal or a port that will ultimately benefit all public and private stakeholders. The CPPI is intended to serve as a benchmark for important stakeholders in the global economy, including national governments, port authorities and operators, development agencies, supranational organizations, various maritime interests, and other public and private stakeholders engaged in trade, logistics, and supply chain services. The joint team from the World Bank and S&P Global Market Intelligence intends to enhance the methodology, scope, and data in future annual iterations, reflecting refinement, stakeholder feedback, and improvements in data scope and quality

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Croatian Logistics: Opportunities for Sustainable Competitiveness

2021-06-04, Blancas, Luis C., Bozicevic, Ana, Rogic, Kristijan, Bajor, Ivona, Novacko, Luka

Croatia needs to find new sources of economic growth to attain income convergence with the EU; this was true before the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, and it is an even more urgent challenge now. Improvements in freight logistics, which permeate the tradeable economy and domestic commerce, can become a catalyst of productivity growth, business resilience, and environmentally sustainable economic expansion for Croatia. Efficient logistics facilitate trade by improving access to markets through connectivity improvements and cost competitiveness. This report takes stock of Croatia’s logistics sector at the national level. It aims to describe the sector’s supply-demand composition, identify challenges and opportunities to improve sectoral performance, and recommend public policy measures to address these challenges and meet the opportunities at hand.

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Mobile Cooling: Assessment of Challenges and Options

2020-06-23, Ayres, Michael, Stankevich, Natalya, Diehl, Adam

This paper provides background on the issue of cooling in land transportation applications including road, rail and refrigerated container shipping. The paper analyzes the impacts of mobile cooling on energy demand, carbon emissions, economic and development issues. It also considers how mobile cooling demand will grow over time under constrained and un-constrained conditions. Additionally, the paper aims to outline technologies that could reduce the impact of mobile cooling provision and the policies that are in place to encourage take-up and efficiency. Lastly, the paper highlights the remaining policy gaps and recommendations for policy action to advance mobile cooling access and reduce its impact on the environment.

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The Container Port Performance Index 2021: A Comparable Assessment of Container Port Performance

2022, World Bank

World Bank and S&P Global Market Intelligence container port performance index and underlying data are intended to identify gaps and opportunities for improvement that would benefit all key stakeholders in global trade, including governments, shipping lines, port and terminal operators, shippers, logistics companies and consumers. The ranking is based on time vessels needed to spend in port to complete workloads over the course of 2021, a year that saw unprecedented port congestion and disruption to global supply chains. The Container Port Performance Index is based on total port hours per ship call, defined as the elapsed time between when a ship reaches a port to its departure from the berth having completed its cargo exchange. Greater or lesser workloads are accounted for by examining the underlying data within ten different call size ranges. Five distinct ship size groups are accounted for in the methodology given the potential for greater fuel and emissions savings on larger vessels.

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The Container Port Performance Index 2020: A Comparable Assessment of Container Port Performance

2021, World Bank

Maritime transport is the backbone of globalized trade and the manufacturing supply chain, with more than four-fifths of global merchandise trade (by volume) carried by sea. Accordingly, how a maritime port performs is a crucial element in the cost of international trade for a country. Despite the centrality of the port to global value chains, one of the major challenges to stimulating improvement has been the lack of a reliable, consistent, and comparable basis on which to compare operational performance across different ports. The introduction of new technologies, increased digitization, and the willingness of industry interests to work collectively toward systemwide improvements has now provided the opportunity to measure and compare container port performance in a robust and reliable manner for the first time. This technical paper, which presents the inaugural edition of the Container Port Performance Index (CPPI 2020), has been produced by the World Bank’s Transport Global Practice, in collaboration with IHS Markit. The CPPI is intended to identify gaps and opportunities for improvement that will ultimately benefit all stakeholders from shipping lines to national governments to consumers.

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Delivering Road Safety in Nepal: Leadership Priorities and Initiatives to 2030

2020-02-20, World Bank

Road crash deaths and injuries in Nepal have been on a sharp upward trajectory since the early 2000s. In fi scal year 2017–18, 2,541 road deaths were offi cially reported in Nepal, which is equivalent to a fatality rate of 8.59 per 100,000 population. In the same period, 4,144 serious injury and several minor injury victims were also offi cially reported. However, according to World Health Organization data the estimated fatality rate in 2016 was 15.9 per 100,000 population, which is nearly double the offi cial estimate. In 2016, vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists) accounted for around 72 percent of all road fatality victims, among the highest levels in the region, with pedestrians accounting for half of these. Road deaths have a disproportionate impact on the young, working age population. About 40 percent of people killed on Nepal’s roads in 2017 –18 were less than 26 years old. In 2016, transport injuries were the second leading cause of death among men aged 15–49-years.