Transport Papers

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  • Publication
    Croatian Logistics: Opportunities for Sustainable Competitiveness
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06-04) Blancas, Luis C.; Bozicevic, Ana; Rogic, Kristijan; Bajor, Ivona; Novacko, Luka
    Croatia needs to find new sources of economic growth to attain income convergence with the EU; this was true before the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, and it is an even more urgent challenge now. Improvements in freight logistics, which permeate the tradeable economy and domestic commerce, can become a catalyst of productivity growth, business resilience, and environmentally sustainable economic expansion for Croatia. Efficient logistics facilitate trade by improving access to markets through connectivity improvements and cost competitiveness. This report takes stock of Croatia’s logistics sector at the national level. It aims to describe the sector’s supply-demand composition, identify challenges and opportunities to improve sectoral performance, and recommend public policy measures to address these challenges and meet the opportunities at hand.
  • Publication
    Road Freight in Central America: Five Explanations to High Costs of Service Provision
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-06) World Bank
    An efficient system to transport goods domestically and internationally is a key element of the logistics chain. Road freight transport has a direct impact on poverty as it employs millions of people and generates a significant portion of Gross Domestic Product, or GDP, especially in low and middle-income countries. Trucking is the primary form of transportation for domestic, trans-border, and international cargo, in Central America. Road freight transport is now vital to production, distribution, and mobilization, driving economic, social, and environmental progress. In short, trucking is the backbone of economies around the world. In the past 20 years, the industry has advanced as technology has improved communication, management, productivity, including vehicle efficiency. Their objective in doing so is to expand markets, generate wealth on the basis of efficient specialization, introduce competition, and lower costs for production, distribution, services, and research and development. When road freight transport services are efficient, they support these objectives; when they are not they act as nontariff barriers to trade, creating delays, raising costs, worsening congestion and pollution. Such barriers prolong and destabilize delivery schedules, hinder 'just in time' inventory management and industrial processes, and impede the efficient combination of factors of production.
  • Publication
    Measures to Reduce the Economic and Social Impact of High Fuel Prices
    (Washington, DC, 2011) World Bank
    High volatility in the world prices of petroleum has been a characteristic feature of the global economy in the last decade. World petroleum prices increased four-fold between 2004 and 2008 and, and following a drop in prices in the second half of 2008, petroleum prices have been rising again, and they are several times higher than they were two decades ago. Since high and volatility of prices is likely to be a permanent feature of the global economy for the foreseeable future, they merit a reconsideration of the national transport and taxation policies that were put in place when fuel prices were not such a significant component of trade-related transactions costs in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. Transport practices that were based on the assumption of low price of fuel are not sustainable, and policies neglect fuel efficiency considerations through lowering the fuel consumption of vehicles measures are no longer sustainable. Efficient and low transport cost is essential to achieve regional economic integration and strengthen Africa's competitiveness in external markets. Higher diesel prices also impact on the prices of all other goods which use diesel as an intermediate input. The most significant among them with implications for the poor in low-income developing countries is food, on which the poor spend a disproportionately high share of their total household expenditures. This report is in three parts in the first part, transport fuel prices in the countries of SSA are compared with those of other regions of the world. The comparison is not only in terms of the actual retail prices but also, but taking account of per capita incomes and truck revenues, also in terms of affordability. This Part also provides evidence of the make-up of transport fuel prices in SSA countries, as a first step in assessing how they can be dealt with. The second part provides new evidence of the impact of these high fuel prices on the export competiveness of a sample of six SSA countries. It also provides a shorter description of the results of a study of the impact of fuel prices on logistics costs in Central America, since so far there have not been any studies of the impact of high transport fuel prices on logistics and food costs in SSA countries. The third part deals with the ways in which the impact of high transport fuel prices can be addressed. Two main areas of action are described, those that would reduce the retail price of transport fuel and those that would increase fuel efficiency, so they impact of high prices would be reduced. This section focuses on diesel fuel, as this is by far the most used by the trucks that transport export products and are involved in domestic logistics. This section concludes with some ideas on what could be done next to make progress on implementing the most promising ideas for reducing the impact of high transport fuel prices.
  • Publication
    Supply Chain Security Guide
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009) Donner, Michel; Kruk, Cornelis
    A supply chain is a system of resources, organizations, people, technologies, activities and information involved in the act of transporting goods from producer to consumer and user. This (SCS) guide is intended for trade and transport government officials, port authorities and transport, cargo and logistics communities, in particular in developing countries. The purpose of the guide is to make concerned trade and transport-related officials, managers and personnel in developing countries acquainted with, and aware of, the many initiatives mushrooming in the field of supply chain security, what these will mean for their respective organizations, and how to tackle the inlaid challenges. This chapter attempts to clarify the background and current status of the multitude of programs that exist across the world today. This is achieved by, firstly, giving a brief account of the changing security environment (post 9/11) and its resulting implications for SCS programs. This is important as it helps to explain the motivation of the programs which are later expanded upon in more detail within the chapter. Within this section, the motivations for different types of programs, not directly linked to the events of 9/11 but to other reasons, such as combating illegal activities, enhancement of efficiency and standardization are also explained. Secondly, a list of the main programs is present under four main subheadings: compulsory programs, major voluntary programs, regional or national programs, and others. Tables are presented at the end of the section summarizing the main points of each program. Finally, some of the issues surrounding the programs are presented in the concluding section.