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Paths Toward Green Mobility: Perspectives on Women and Rail Transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) Kurshitashvili, Nato ; Gonzalez Carvajal, Karla ; Saunders, Kelly ; Ait Bihi Ouali, LailaThis report explores two aspects of the rail transport sector - mobility, and employment--in the countries of Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina from a gender perspective. It examines issues of rail transport for women both as passengers, and as sector employees. It highlights the urgency of transport decarbonization for the Western Balkan countries (WB6) in the context of the European Union’s Green Deal,2 which aims to achieve net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050. This report shows that Covid-19 has decimated rail transport use at a time when global and WB6 regional efforts must dramatically increase their movement toward decarbonization. The study confirms that the pandemic has drawn people away from public transport including rail, and toward more carbon-intensive individual modes of transportation. It also makes a rarely made connection between getting more women into the transport sector and improved mobility for women. Rail services remain male-dominated across the world. The report finds clear parallels between women’s employment and mobility. Finally, while this study focuses on women and rail transport, it has the benefit of making rail more attractive for other cohorts as well, including those who primarily use private vehicles (mainly men).
The Container Port Performance Index 2020: A Comparable Assessment of Container Port Performance(Washington, DC, 2021) World BankMaritime transport is the backbone of globalized trade and the manufacturing supply chain, with more than four-fifths of global merchandise trade (by volume) carried by sea. Accordingly, how a maritime port performs is a crucial element in the cost of international trade for a country. Despite the centrality of the port to global value chains, one of the major challenges to stimulating improvement has been the lack of a reliable, consistent, and comparable basis on which to compare operational performance across different ports. The introduction of new technologies, increased digitization, and the willingness of industry interests to work collectively toward systemwide improvements has now provided the opportunity to measure and compare container port performance in a robust and reliable manner for the first time. This technical paper, which presents the inaugural edition of the Container Port Performance Index (CPPI 2020), has been produced by the World Bank’s Transport Global Practice, in collaboration with IHS Markit. The CPPI is intended to identify gaps and opportunities for improvement that will ultimately benefit all stakeholders from shipping lines to national governments to consumers.