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Paths Toward Green Mobility: Perspectives on Women and Rail Transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) Kurshitashvili, Nato ; Gonzalez Carvajal, Karla ; Saunders, Kelly ; Ait Bihi Ouali, LailaThis report explores two aspects of the rail transport sector - mobility, and employment--in the countries of Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina from a gender perspective. It examines issues of rail transport for women both as passengers, and as sector employees. It highlights the urgency of transport decarbonization for the Western Balkan countries (WB6) in the context of the European Union’s Green Deal,2 which aims to achieve net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050. This report shows that Covid-19 has decimated rail transport use at a time when global and WB6 regional efforts must dramatically increase their movement toward decarbonization. The study confirms that the pandemic has drawn people away from public transport including rail, and toward more carbon-intensive individual modes of transportation. It also makes a rarely made connection between getting more women into the transport sector and improved mobility for women. Rail services remain male-dominated across the world. The report finds clear parallels between women’s employment and mobility. Finally, while this study focuses on women and rail transport, it has the benefit of making rail more attractive for other cohorts as well, including those who primarily use private vehicles (mainly men).
Towards a Transit Oriented Development Approach for Belgrade(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-09) World Bank GroupThe purpose of this report is to explore opportunities to better integrate land use and public transit planning in Belgrade. Specifically, the aim is to develop an approach toward Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) for Belgrade building off the city’s recently approved Transport Master Plan (2017). The Transport Master Plan, which is to be implemented over the next 16 years (through2033), includes all modes of transport: automobiles, public buses, trams, metro, and commuterrail service (known as BG Voz). The required total investment is estimated to be over 400 millioneuros excluding the metro project. Thus, implementation will require large sums of money for bothcapital and operational expenses, while the city has limited financing resources. Given the fiscalconstraints, it would be prudent for Belgrade city authorities to explore self-financing projectschemes for urban transit and land development, incorporating land value capture (LVC). Thisreport evaluates the Transport Master Plan together with other available data to find ways to realize TOD and LVC in Belgrade, including identifying current gaps in knowledge towards such a goal. There are several large-scale, long-term urban development projects envisaged for Belgrade such as development of the Makis Polje area and Waterfront Railway Yard Conversion Project and theWaterfront. The Transport Master Plan considers these developments as a given. The projected future populations in these sites serve as the base to model future traffic demand, and to evaluate the proposed transport investment projects. The Transport Master Plan recognizes the need for detailed planning and economic verification of these urban development schemes.