Transport Papers

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  • Publication
    From Connectivity to Opportunity: Leveraging regional corridors to support growth and development in Guinea
    (Washington, DC, 2023-11-06) World Bank
    The objectives of this study are to (1) assess the impact of regional and internal connectivity on jobs and access to services and (2) to provide recommendations for policy reforms and investments. This analysis uses quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand the opportunities that better connectivity provides for secondary cities in Guinea,what factors might constrain the potential for growth and,how policy makers at different levels of government should respond to maximize the benefits of economic corridors. This analysis also aims to provide a better understanding of the relative impact of transport improvements and direct trade facilitation reforms. Finally, the study assesses complementary reforms, investments, and overall policies to develop practical and implementable recommendations that could be deployed to enhance the returns to better trade and connectivity to urban areas in Guinea.
  • Publication
    Paths Toward Green Mobility: Perspectives on Women and Rail Transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) Kurshitashvili, Nato; Gonzalez Carvajal, Karla; Saunders, Kelly; Ait Bihi Ouali, Laila
    This report explores two aspects of the rail transport sector - mobility, and employment--in the countries of Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina from a gender perspective. It examines issues of rail transport for women both as passengers, and as sector employees. It highlights the urgency of transport decarbonization for the Western Balkan countries (WB6) in the context of the European Union’s Green Deal,2 which aims to achieve net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050. This report shows that Covid-19 has decimated rail transport use at a time when global and WB6 regional efforts must dramatically increase their movement toward decarbonization. The study confirms that the pandemic has drawn people away from public transport including rail, and toward more carbon-intensive individual modes of transportation. It also makes a rarely made connection between getting more women into the transport sector and improved mobility for women. Rail services remain male-dominated across the world. The report finds clear parallels between women’s employment and mobility. Finally, while this study focuses on women and rail transport, it has the benefit of making rail more attractive for other cohorts as well, including those who primarily use private vehicles (mainly men).
  • Publication
    Croatian Logistics: Opportunities for Sustainable Competitiveness
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06-04) Blancas, Luis C.; Bozicevic, Ana; Rogic, Kristijan; Bajor, Ivona; Novacko, Luka
    Croatia needs to find new sources of economic growth to attain income convergence with the EU; this was true before the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, and it is an even more urgent challenge now. Improvements in freight logistics, which permeate the tradeable economy and domestic commerce, can become a catalyst of productivity growth, business resilience, and environmentally sustainable economic expansion for Croatia. Efficient logistics facilitate trade by improving access to markets through connectivity improvements and cost competitiveness. This report takes stock of Croatia’s logistics sector at the national level. It aims to describe the sector’s supply-demand composition, identify challenges and opportunities to improve sectoral performance, and recommend public policy measures to address these challenges and meet the opportunities at hand.
  • Publication
    Modern Railway Services in Africa: Building Traffic - Building Value
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-09-25) World Bank
    The role of rail in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) changed considerably in the latter years of the twentieth century. Although some upgrading has occurred, most SSA networks outside South Africa are still operating to the standards to which they were originally constructed. To encourage the commercialization of the railways and reduce the burden on government finances, several countries concessioned their rail system from the 1990’s on. However, rail infrastructure improvements which encourage modal shift generate benefits from lower road congestion and maintenance costs, fewer road accidents, less pollution, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. In recent years, many governments in Africa have therefore taken a renewed interest in rehabilitating and upgrading their railways, or in constructing new ones. They desire to improve their logistics efficiency and promote a green mode of transport that is less carbon intensive than road. The railways in Africa can be divided into four broad groups: mineral railways; new railways; legacy railways; and commuter railways. This note reviews the current situation and discusses the challenges and possible approaches to address them.
  • Publication
    Mobile Cooling: Assessment of Challenges and Options
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-23) Ayres, Michael; Stankevich, Natalya; Diehl, Adam
    This paper provides background on the issue of cooling in land transportation applications including road, rail and refrigerated container shipping. The paper analyzes the impacts of mobile cooling on energy demand, carbon emissions, economic and development issues. It also considers how mobile cooling demand will grow over time under constrained and un-constrained conditions. Additionally, the paper aims to outline technologies that could reduce the impact of mobile cooling provision and the policies that are in place to encourage take-up and efficiency. Lastly, the paper highlights the remaining policy gaps and recommendations for policy action to advance mobile cooling access and reduce its impact on the environment.
  • Publication
    Delivering Road Safety in Nepal: Leadership Priorities and Initiatives to 2030
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-02-20) World Bank
    Road crash deaths and injuries in Nepal have been on a sharp upward trajectory since the early 2000s. In fi scal year 2017–18, 2,541 road deaths were offi cially reported in Nepal, which is equivalent to a fatality rate of 8.59 per 100,000 population. In the same period, 4,144 serious injury and several minor injury victims were also offi cially reported. However, according to World Health Organization data the estimated fatality rate in 2016 was 15.9 per 100,000 population, which is nearly double the offi cial estimate. In 2016, vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists) accounted for around 72 percent of all road fatality victims, among the highest levels in the region, with pedestrians accounting for half of these. Road deaths have a disproportionate impact on the young, working age population. About 40 percent of people killed on Nepal’s roads in 2017 –18 were less than 26 years old. In 2016, transport injuries were the second leading cause of death among men aged 15–49-years.
  • Publication
    Delivering Road Safety in Bangladesh: Leadership Priorities and Initiatives to 2030
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-02-20) World Bank
    High fatality and injury rates on Bangladesh’s roads are undermining the remarkable progress that this South Asian nation has made on boosting economic growth and reducing poverty.
  • Publication
    Road Safety in South Asia: Opportunities for Shared Regional Initiatives
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-02-20) World Bank
    There is an increasing recognition that policy initiatives at the regional level can complement and strengthen country road safety strategies and programs. This is certainly the case in the South Asia region, with implications for regional road safety investment priorities and potential for shared road safety initiatives.
  • Publication
    Delivering Road Safety in Sri Lanka: Leadership Priorities and Initiatives to 2030
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-02-20) World Bank
    High road crash fatality and injury rates on Sri Lanka’s roads are undermining the economic growth and progress made over the past decade on reducing poverty and boosting prosperity. Estimated annual road crash deaths per capita in Sri Lanka are twice the average rate in high-income countries and fi ve times that of the best performing countries in the world. Available data indicate an average of 38,000 crashes annually which result in around 3,000 fatalities and 8,000 serious injuries. Sri Lanka has the worst road fatality rate among its immediate neighbors in the South Asia region.
  • Publication
    Delivering Road Safety in India: Leadership Priorities and Initiatives to 2030
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-02-20) World Bank
    India has the world’s highest reported number of annual road crash fatalities. According to the World Health Organization, road crash fatalities in India account for approximately 11 percent of the estimated 1.35 million global toll each year. Vulnerable road users, primarily pedestrians, cyclists, and two-wheelers, account for almost 54 percent of all fatalities and serious injuries. The young, working-age population is predominantly aff ected. Road users between the ages of 18 and 45 comprise 69 percent of all fatalities. This disproportionate impact of road crash mortality and morbidity on this economically productive segment of the population has a negative impact on productivity and is likely to signifi cantly depress GDP growth rates.