Miscellaneous Knowledge Notes

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  • Publication
    Vietnam - Upgrading infrastructure design for universal accessibility
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-21) World Bank
    The World Bank’s Vietnam Scaling Up Urban Upgrading Project aimed to develop sustainable urban infrastructure in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta Region. The project focused on universally accessible design principles for infrastructure development and aimed to strengthen planning capacity, improve infrastructure design, increase awareness of universal accessibility, and promote green infrastructure. A QII Partnership grant supported the project by facilitating the application of principles and providing technical advice. These activities will benefit seven urbanizing cities, improve livelihoods, and reach approximately 90,000 individuals in low-income areas with universal accessibility design. It has also informed new World Bank initiatives to improve accessibility regionally and globally.
  • Publication
    Valuation and Compensation of Unregistered and Customary Lands
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-12) World Bank
    Land tenure is a social construct and usually manifests as a set of rules that regulate how land rights are allocated among members of society. The case studies in this report reflect how countries address the challenges inherent in the valuation and compensation of unregistered and customary lands differently, but all seem to combine some formal eligibility criteria with participatory verification processes. International Financial Institutions (IFIs) played an important role in advancing compensation eligibility of legitimate informal occupants, which is becoming more important than ever as climate mitigation and adaptation require construction of a large number of renewable energy generation and transmission capacities where tenure rights are not clearly established.
  • Publication
    Embedding Climate Resilience into Urban and Transport Projects
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-05) World Bank
    This note summarizes lessons and practices deployed in embedding climate resilience into the design of projects that received catalytic funds from The Africa Climate Resilience Investment Facility (AFRI-RES). It draws from application of the Resilience Booster Tool to specific projects, as relevant, Compendium Volume on Climate Resilient Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank (2023a) and Guidance, Standards, and Good Practice Notes developed under the program.
  • Publication
    Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Kinshasa’s Path Towards Resilient Urban Development
    (Washington, DC, 2023-08-23) World Bank
    With Kinshasa facing infrastructure and social exclusion challenges, the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) partnered with the World Bank on the Kinshasa Multisector Development and Urban Resilience Project. This initiative improves transport, urban services, and infrastructure resilience. Supported by a grant from the QII Partnership, the project employed flood risk mapping and resilient infrastructure development, leveraging Japanese expertise in urban transport. As a result, the municipal government is better positioned to manage climate risks, develop robust, resilient infrastructure, and prioritize infrastructure investment opportunities.
  • Publication
    Increasing Supply Chain Links in Cabo Verde’s Tourism Sector: Challenges, Opportunities, and Recommendations for Improving Food Supply Quantity, Quality, and Reliability
    (Washington, DC, 2023-04-19) World Bank
    Brief assessment of the challenges, opportunities, and recommendations for Improving Food Supply Quantity, Quality, and Reliability in Cabo Verde.
  • Publication
    Enabling Scaled-Up Risk Reduction Investments in the Philippines: Establishing a Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management Program to Better Safeguard Against Hazards
    (Washington, DC, 2023-04-10) World Bank
    The Philippines is one of the most natural hazard-prone countries in the world. Disasters in the country can quickly roll back hard-won economic and social development gains. To better safeguard the country against these disasters, it is critical to ramp up the institutional capacity and policies for a comprehensive disaster risk management program and to improve coordination between oversight and implementing agencies through upgraded legislation with disaster risk reduction measures while also building the capacity of government agencies by introducing resilience-building tools and resources. The program demonstrated that a whole-of-government approach is critical for meaningful results in a multi-sectoral engagement on disaster risk management. An engaged, committed core team of counterparts across all relevant sectors within government, including central oversight agencies, were crucial in the achievement of the program’s desired outputs and outcomes.
  • Publication
    Behind on Rent or Left Behind: Measuring Housing Poverty in Urban Pakistan
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-09-08) Meyer, Moritz; Qazi, Maria; Rajashekar, Anirudh; Zhang, Yan
    Pakistan’s urban areas face a looming housing crisis: forty-seven percent of households live in over-crowded housing units in informal settlements (katchi abadis) with inadequate infrastructure and services. In response to the growing housing shortage, the Government of Pakistan launched the ambitious Naya Pakistan Housing Program (NPHP) in April 2019 with the objective of providing five million housing units across the country in five years, prioritizing those in lower income brackets for whom affordable housing is out of reach. To assist in targeting, and for monitoring the effectiveness of this policy and others, it is important to determine an objective criterion for housing affordability. This note proposes a modified Residual Expenditure Methodology (REM) approach, drawing on existing poverty measurement methodology, to measure housing poverty in urban Pakistan.
  • Publication
    Constraints to Women’s Use of Public Transport in Developing Countries, Part I: High Costs, Limited Access, and Lack of Comfort
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-08-03) Borker, Girija
    This brief, the first in a two-part series, provides an overview of the evidence on key features of women’s travel behavior and the barriers they face in accessing public transport in developing countries, including affordability, frequency, coverage, and comfort. Women make more frequent, shorter trips with more stops along the way to combine multiple tasks. In contrast, men follow direct and linear routes. These patterns have important implications. As this brief shows, the cost and frequency of public transport affect women more than men, and given women’s income constraints, create trade-offs between travel and other economic opportunities. This brief also highlights how the current design of public transport does not accommodate the unique needs of women. Notably, coverage issues such as a poorly connected network, including last mile problems, limit women’s use of public transport and increase their reliance on private and informal modes of transport. Infrastructure design does not prioritize women’s comfort. Understanding the evidence on the challenges faced by women is a first step in identifying policies and interventions that could improve women’s accessibility.
  • Publication
    Constraints to Women’s Use of Public Transport in Developing Countries, Part II: Safety
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-08-03) Borker, Girija
    Women and men travel differently in low- and middle-income countries and women face different constraints on their mobility. _is Brief is the second in a two-part series that provides an overview of the evidence on key features of women’s travel behavior and the safety barriers they face in accessing public transport in developing countries (see Borker 2022, which focuses on affordability, frequency, coverage, and comfort). This brief focuses on the safety concerns that limit women’s use of public transport, centering on two aspects of safety: safety from accidents and safety from violence. It highlights how women’s different travel behavior, as well as unsafe infrastructure, driving, and vehicle design, make women vulnerable to road accidents. It also shows that an overwhelming majority of women around the world have experienced sexual violence as they travel, whether verbal, visual, or physical. Women’s perceptions about violence and their actual safety in public spaces affect both their physical mobility and economic choices. Understanding the evidence on the challenges faced by women is a first step in identifying policies and interventions that could improve women’s accessibility.
  • Publication
    Estimating Urban Poverty Consistently Across Countries
    (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2022-07-12) Combes, Pierre-Philippe; Nakamura, Shohei; Roberts, Mark; Stewart, Benjamin
    Global poverty monitored by the World Bank for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is reported only at the national level, lacking a breakdown between urban and rural areas. A key challenge to producing globally comparable estimates of urban poverty is the need for consistent definitions of urban areas and poverty. This note illustrates an innovative approach to integrating globally consistent urban and poverty measurements to estimate urban poverty statistics that are directly comparable across countries. Two approaches to quantifying urban, the Degree of Urbanization and the Dartboard approaches are applied in seven case countries. By combining these delineations with official household budget survey data, poverty is estimated with international poverty lines. The empirical illustrations demonstrate that the proposed approach is potentially useful to improve the monitoring of global poverty.