Miscellaneous Knowledge Notes

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  • Publication
    Constraints to Women’s Use of Public Transport in Developing Countries, Part I: High Costs, Limited Access, and Lack of Comfort
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-08-03) Borker, Girija
    This brief, the first in a two-part series, provides an overview of the evidence on key features of women’s travel behavior and the barriers they face in accessing public transport in developing countries, including affordability, frequency, coverage, and comfort. Women make more frequent, shorter trips with more stops along the way to combine multiple tasks. In contrast, men follow direct and linear routes. These patterns have important implications. As this brief shows, the cost and frequency of public transport affect women more than men, and given women’s income constraints, create trade-offs between travel and other economic opportunities. This brief also highlights how the current design of public transport does not accommodate the unique needs of women. Notably, coverage issues such as a poorly connected network, including last mile problems, limit women’s use of public transport and increase their reliance on private and informal modes of transport. Infrastructure design does not prioritize women’s comfort. Understanding the evidence on the challenges faced by women is a first step in identifying policies and interventions that could improve women’s accessibility.
  • Publication
    Somalia: COVID-19 High Phone Survey Wave 2 Brief
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11) Kotikula, Andy; Pournik, Milad; Yoshimura, Kazusa
    In January 2021, the second wave of the Somalia high frequency phone survey has been administered, calling 2,811 households to see the impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on people’s behavior and livelihood. The first wave has been conducted in June 2020, and compared to that, the adoption of preventive measures such as washing hands and wearing mask was less widespread in the second wave, while over 90 percent of people expressed interest in getting tested and vaccinated. The overall employment rate seems to have improved from the first wave, but still the majority of households (79 percent) reported the further income reduction. Food insecurity has clearly worsened compared to the first wave while government and non-government assistance appears to have reduced greatly since 2020, which strongly suggests the need of further support to the Somalis, especially the most vulnerable groups including internally displaced populations (IDPs) and nomadic households.
  • Publication
    Vulnerability of Internally Displaced Persons in Urban Settings
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-01) World Bank; UNHCR
    Internal displacement, rapid growth of urban areas and proliferation of informal settlements are in the spotlight of public policy debate in Afghanistan at present. This pamphlet discusses characteristics, livelihood strategies and vulnerabilities of households living in informal settlements in three urban centers in Afghanistan. These findings summarize the analysis from a joint World Bank-UNHCR ‘research study on IDPs in urban settings’, which illustrates the complexities of displacement and of urban informal settlement growth. Motivated by an existing knowledge gap on these issues, the analysis provides a starting point for discussion among actors directly or indirectly involved with management of problems related to displacement and urban informal settlements, including departments in the Government of Afghanistan, international institutions and stakeholders from civil society. The study documents the significance of displacement as a factor underlying vulnerabilities observed in informal settlements, and identifies IDPs as an extremely deprived segment of the population, even in comparison to the profile of urban poverty in the recent national risk and vulnerability assessment.