Miscellaneous Knowledge Notes

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  • Publication
    Water Access and Management
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) UNCTAD; World Bank
    This note provides guidance on how to ensure that the impact of agricultural investments on water resources is effectively measured, monitored, and regulated. Water is essential to agricultural production and processing, and has been a driving factor in private and public decisions on where to locate investments. Despite global concerns about water scarcity and pollution, the water use of agricultural investments is in many cases not rigorously measured, monitored, or regulated. Where regulations exist, enforcement is often weak. Some investors improve local water access with community development programs, but such schemes require consultation and careful management.
  • Publication
    Tools for Screening Prospective Investors
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) UNCTAD; World Bank
    This note supplements note 6: screening prospective investors. The investment screening process requires suitable tools for assisting government agencies in their work. This note provides examples of tools that government agencies can adapt to their national context and use to develop the technical capacity to screen and select investors.
  • Publication
    Community Development Agreements
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03-01) UNCTAD; World Bank
    This note provides guidance on negotiating, designing, and implementing community development agreements between investors and local communities. Some investors, in particular those thatoperate in remote rural areas, have made significant contributions to local development through social development programs. Their effectiveness and the manner in which they are implemented depend on the context and the capacity of the investor. The most successful programs include localcommunities in making decisions about scope, require investors to make binding commitments, and support rather than supplant governmental responsibilities.
  • Publication
    Investment Contracts
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) UNCTAD; World Bank
    This note provides guidance on the form and content of contracts between investors and governments pertaining to agricultural investments. The best guarantee of positive benefits from foreign investment is a solid foundation of domestic laws that are properly enforced. In many developing countries, however, the necessary domestic laws may not be in place or may not be sufficiently detailed. Even when they are in place, they may not be implemented or enforced. Contracts can help fill the gaps in domestic laws by providing more detailed guidance on what should be contained in the assessments, and using international standards and best practice as the reference points. However, contracts need to be drafted carefully to maximize benefits and reduce risks.
  • Publication
    Monitoring Investments
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) UNCTAD; World Bank
    This note provides guidance on how to monitor the performance and impact of agricultural investments, and on which aspects to observe. Ongoing monitoring of investments is a key way to hold investors accountable for contractual commitments and deliver the expected benefits to the country and surrounding communities. It also facilitates early identification of emerging negative impacts or of failing investments, enabling remedial actions. Monitoring is often deficient because of a lack of resources and systematic procedures, which allows negative impacts to escalate beyond what will otherwise be the case. Internal monitoring is likewise good practice for investors and their financiers, though the field research indicated room for improvement.
  • Publication
    Food Security and Nutrition
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) UNCTAD; World Bank
    This note provides guidance on how to ensure tan agricultural investment makes a positive contribution to local and national food security and nutrition. Investments can play a critical role by introducing technologies to increase productivity, by providing demonstration effects, by creating quality jobs, by catalyzing modernization of the sector, and by linking small-scale producers with global markets—all of which, in the right circumstances, contribute to food securityand nutrition. Yet, investments can have a negative impact and be detrimental to food security and nutrition, especially where investments reduce local access to land and water. The challenge for policymakers and investors is how to design policy and business models that maximize the positive benefits to food security and nutrition but minimize the associated risks.
  • Publication
    Grievance Redress Mechanisms
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) UNCTAD; World Bank
    This note provides guidance on how investors can provide effective remedies to affected parties who perceive that their rights have been adversely affected by business activities. A grievance redress mechanism (GRM) is a set of arrangements that enable local communities, employees, out growers, and other affected stakeholders to raise grievances with the investor and seek redress when they perceive a negative impact arising from the investor’s activities. It is a key way to mitigate, manage, and resolve potential or realized negative impacts, as well as fulfill obligations under international human rights law and contribute to positive relations with communities and employees. GRMs have been operated with varying degrees of success. This noteprovides guidance and examples on how to improve the design and implementation of mechanisms for mutual benefit.