Miscellaneous Knowledge Notes

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  • Publication
    Monitoring COVID-19 Impacts on Households in Sudan: Results from a Panel Household High-Frequency Phone Survey
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-06) Osman, Eiman; Rahasimbelonirina, Ando; Etang, Alvin
    This brief focuses on the household survey component of the High-Frequency Phone Survey of Households (HFS). The sampling methodology adopted for the implementation of the household survey is probabilistic, and the sampling frame is provided by a compilation of a list of phone numbers collected during the implementation of various projects/surveys during the last few years at the household level across the country. The sample is representative of the 18 states of Sudan. This brief summarizes the main results of the core questions in the completed six rounds of the Sudan HFS of the same households (i.e., a panel survey). Results of the firm survey will be reported in a separate report.
  • Publication
    Barriers to Accessing Medical Care in Sub-Saharan Africa in Early Stages of COVID-19 Pandemic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-03) Swindle, Rachel; Newhouse, David
    Eighty-two percent of respondents in a sample of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries were able to access medical care despite the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the remaining 18 percent, about one-third reported that the COVID-19 pandemic impaired their access, either due to lockdown restrictions, facility closures, or fear of contracting the virus. 'Lack of money' was by far the most frequently reported barrier to accessing care across countries, especially for food-insecure households, two-thirds of which cited 'lack of money' as the main healthcare access constraint. Continued monitoring can help shed light on who is most at risk of not being able to access healthcare during crises. This note makes use of newly harmonized data to summarize reasons why respondents in 11 SSA countries were unable to access medical care during early COVID-19 stages.
  • Publication
    Conducting Rapid Response Phone Surveys to Fill Data Gaps
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-07) Delius, Antonia; Himelein, Kristen; Pape, Utz Johann
    To respond effectively to crises, policy makers need reliable, timely evidence on its negative effects and transmission channels. Despite limitations compared to face-to-face surveys, rapid response phone surveys (RRPS) are a cost-effective, flexible method to quickly fill data gaps. This note gives an overview of main considerations when setting up a RRPS. It also illustrates how surveyors have used this tool to inform design of interventions during Ebola and famine crises. The World Bank is currently using RRPSs to track the impact of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) in more than 100 countries.
  • Publication
    The Impact of COVID-19 on Workers in Hawassa Industrial Park
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-03) World Bank
    As part of the World Bank Group’s analytical work program on More, better, and more inclusive jobs: Preparing for successful industrialization in Ethiopia (funded by the UK Department for International Development), a team of researchers led by Morgan Hardy (New York University Abu Dhabi) and Christian Johannes Meyer (University of Oxford) is deploying high-frequency phone surveys on a representative sample of garment factory workers in Hawassa Industrial Park (HIP) to document how their lives are changing during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis. This Rapid Briefing Note reports the preliminary baseline results from 3,163 female respondents, summarizing the more detailed “Living Paper” written by the team of researchers. The data collection took place between April 28 and May 26, 2020.
  • Publication
    Health Impact and Effectiveness of Distribution Models for Plastic Latrine Slabs in Kenya
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-03) World Bank Group
    Lack of sanitation is a huge development challenge in Kenya, but also a potentially sizeable market opportunity. The World Bank and IFCs ‘Selling Sanitation’ project worked with large plastics manufacturing firms in Nairobi to design, test, and support market development and distribution of a range of plastic latrine slabs. The products were designed from the consumer’s perspective using the Human-Centered Design approach and priced well below the cost of the prevailing concrete slab. This research brief summarizes baseline findings and monitoring results from an impact evaluation of the plastic latrine slab, evaluating its health impact and the effectiveness of niche distribution and financing mechanisms for reaching base-of-the-pyramid households. Baseline findings show that children in the study area suffer from high rates of diarrhea and many are underweight, but worm infections are rare. The majority of households at baseline had unimproved pit latrines with either no slab (49%), or a mud slab, and overall sanitation and environmental hygiene conditions are poor. Feedback on the plastic slab from monitoring visits is overwhelmingly positive, with respondents citing ease of cleaning, safety for children, and prestige. However several barriers to adoption were noted. Most participants perceive the slab as unaffordable for the target beneficiaries, while a lack of adequate follow-up and marketing from sales agents, and limited availability of the product in remote, rural villages are major obstacles to generating demand for the slab. Additional public sector resources will be needed to further support the development of distribution channels and financing mechanisms to reduce the price for base-of-the-pyramid households and increase adoption of the slab among target beneficiaries.
  • Publication
    A Case Study on How Allocative Efficiency Analysis Supported by Mathematical Modelling Changed HIV Investment in Sudan
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-11) World Bank
    This brief presents a real-life example of how a group of government decision-makers, programme managers, researchers and development partners worked together to improve the allocation of HIV resources in Sudan and thereby better address the HIV objectives that the country strives to achieve. The initial modelling analysis showed that by reallocating funds towards antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention programmes in Sudan, 37 percent of new HIV infections could be averted with the same amount of funding. These allocations combined with additional technical efficiency gains would allow for increasing ART coverage from 6 percent in 2013 to 34 percent in 2017, and more than double programme coverage for key populations. The reallocations in the 2015 to 2017 HIV budget for the national response are projected to avert an additional 3,200 new infections and 1,100 deaths in these three years compared to initially planned allocations.The reallocations were achieved through a rigorous HIV allocative efficiency analysis and evidence-informed policy process, conducted by a multi-disciplinary team of national and international partners working for the common goal to make Sudan’s HIV response more manageable and sustainable. The case study discusses process and outcomes of this effort. It also offers some reflections on the application of mathematical modelling to strengthening decision-making of finite HIV resources, and some lessons learned about how to go ‘beyond modelling’ to application of modelled allocative efficiency improvements to improving actual budget allocations for better health outcomes.