Miscellaneous Knowledge Notes

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    Social Assistance Programs and Household Welfare in Eswatini: Study Brief
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12-17) World Bank
    This study brief on “Social Assistance Programs and Household Welfare in Eswatini” examines the performance of Eswatini’s main social assistance programs. These programs employ varying combinations of categorical and self-targeting to reach the poor and vulnerable.
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    Somalia: COVID-19 High Phone Survey Wave 2 Brief
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-11) Kotikula, Andy ; Pournik, Milad ; Yoshimura, Kazusa
    In January 2021, the second wave of the Somalia high frequency phone survey has been administered, calling 2,811 households to see the impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on people’s behavior and livelihood. The first wave has been conducted in June 2020, and compared to that, the adoption of preventive measures such as washing hands and wearing mask was less widespread in the second wave, while over 90 percent of people expressed interest in getting tested and vaccinated. The overall employment rate seems to have improved from the first wave, but still the majority of households (79 percent) reported the further income reduction. Food insecurity has clearly worsened compared to the first wave while government and non-government assistance appears to have reduced greatly since 2020, which strongly suggests the need of further support to the Somalis, especially the most vulnerable groups including internally displaced populations (IDPs) and nomadic households.
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    Socioeconomic Impacts of COVID-19 on Households in Somalia: Results from Round 1 of the Somali High-Frequency Phone Survey
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-10-01) Karamba, Wendy ; Salcher, Isabelle
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its effects on households create an urgent need for timely data and evidence to help monitor and mitigate the social and economic impacts of the crisis on the Somali people, especially the poor and most vulnerable. To monitor the socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and inform policy responses and interventions, the World Bank designed and conducted a nationally representative Somali High-Frequency Phone Survey (SHFPS) of households. The survey covers important and relevant topics, including knowledge of COVID-19 and adoption of preventative behavior, economic activity and income sources, access to basic goods and services, exposure to shocks and coping mechanisms, and access to social assistance. This brief summarizes the findings of the first round of the SHFPS, implemented between June and July 2020. The information presented here is based on a sample of 2,811 households across all regions of Somalia, drawn using a random digit dialing protocol. Sampling weights are computed to ensure representativeness at the national and state level, and by population type. The same households will be tracked over 12 months, with selected respondents—typically the household head—completing interviews every 8-12 weeks. Monitoring the well-being of households over time will improve understanding of the effects of, and household responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in near-real time.
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    COVID-19 High Frequency Phone Surveys in Latin America: Technical Note on Sampling Design, Weighting, and Estimation
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09) Flores Cruz, Ramiro
    The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) high-frequency phone survey (HFPS) 2020 was conducted in 13 Latin American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru. It followed a panel sample over three waves of data collection in 12 countries and over four waves in Ecuador. All waves spanned from May to August 2020 and each wave’s collection period lasted about ten days on average. The survey was administered to one adult per household. Each respondent was presented with both individual and household-level questions. All national samples were based on a dual frame of cell and landline phones, and selected as a one-stage probability sample, with geographic stratification of landline numbers. The samples were generated through a random digit dialing (RDD) process covering all cell and landline telephone numbers active at the time of the sample selection. Survey estimates represent households with a landline or at least one cell phone and individuals of 18 years of age or above who have an active cell phone number or a landline at home.
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    Impacts of COVID-19 on Communities in the Philippines: Results from the Philippines High Frequency Social Monitoring of COVID-19 Impacts Round 2, April 8-14, 2021
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08-23) World Bank
    The brief outlines the finding from the second round of a high frequency social monitoring survey that aimed to assess the impact of COVID 19 (coronavirus) pandemic on the poorest and most vulnerable rural communities. The survey also aimed to determine the level of understanding and source of information of the communities pertaining to the COVID 19 vaccine. The second round of phone-in survey was conducted April 4-13, 2021 and across National Community Driven Development Project (NCDDP, implemented by community DSWD) communities in nine regions in Luzon, the Visayas and Mindanao. Some of the views and observations from the respondents included : Communities were markedly concerned about vaccine safety and effectiveness and looked to doctors and health practitioners for information about vaccination plans. Getting vaccinated would likely be difficult for seniors, persons with comorbidities, and children because of health reasons. Communities preferred food, cash, and livelihood assistance.
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    How Did the COVID-19 Crisis Affect Different Types of Workers in the Developing World?
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08) Kugler, Maurice ; Viollaz, Mariana ; Duque, Daniel ; Gaddis, Isis ; Newhouse, David ; Palacios-Lopez, Amparo ; Weber, Michael
    The COVID-19 pandemic is the worst global macroeconomic shock since the Great Depression. This brief reports which groups of workers have been hit hardest by the economic fallout of COVID-19 in developing countries. Larger shares of female, young, less educated, and urban workers stopped working, with gender differences being particularly pronounced. Gender gaps in work stoppage stemmed mainly from differences within sectors rather than differential employment patterns across sectors. Among those that remained employed, changes in sector of employment and employment type were similar for all groups except for age, where young workers saw a slightly larger decline in industrial employment. Employment increased between April and October, with larger gains for the groups with larger initial job losses, but for most groups these gains fell far short of pre pandemic employment levels. Finally, evidence from five countries suggests that phone surveys give a generally accurate picture of group disparities in employment rates following the onset of the crisis and are proving to be a valuable tool for monitoring differential impacts of the crisis on workers
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    COVID-19 Impact Monitoring: Malawi, Round 11
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-07) World Bank
    The COVID-19 pandemic has socio-economic impacts on Malawians and there is need for timely data to monitor these impacts and support response efforts to the pandemic. In May 2020, the National Statistical Office (NSO), with support from the World Bank, launched the High Frequency Phone Survey on COVID-19; a monthly survey of a nationally representative sample of households previously interviewed as part of the Malawi Integrated Household Panel Survey to monitor the economic impact of the pandemic and other shocks. This brief presents the findings from the tenth and eleventh rounds of the Malawi High-Frequency Phone Sur-vey on COVID-19 (HFPS COVID-19) conducted between the 29th of April and the 9th of June 2021.
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    One Year in the Pandemic: Results from the High-Frequency Phone Surveys for Refugees in Uganda
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06-28) Atamanov, Aziz ; Beltramo, Theresa ; Reese, Benjamin Christopher ; Rios Rivera, Laura Abril ; Waita, Peter
    The URHFPS tracks the socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on refugees. The World Bank (WB) in collaboration with the Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) launched and conducted the URHFPS. The URHFPS tracked the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic between October 2020 and March 2021. This brief discusses key selected results while providing policy options. Where possible and appropriate, findings are compared to Ugandans by using the national High-Frequency Phone Survey (UHFPS) conducted by UBOS with the support from the World Bank since June 2020.
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    Socioeconomic Impacts of COVID-19 in Kenya
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) Pape, Utz Johann ; Delius, Antonia ; Khandelwal, Ritika ; Gupta, Rhea
    The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a strong impact on the livelihoods of Kenyan households, even though employment and income levels are recovering. The second lockdown resulted in another surge in food insecurity. While access to education worsened again due to renewed school closures, health services remained widely accessible to the population. Kenyans are well informed about the preventive measures to avoid COVID-19 infections, and compliance with hygiene measures against the virus increased again during the second lockdown. The majority of Kenyans will be willing to take a COVID-19 vaccine, but many are concerned about potential side effects. One-half of the Kenyan population is anxious due to the fear of contracting COVID-19 and potential employment losses. This brief summarizes the key results of the Kenya COVID-19 rapid response phone survey (RRPS) tracking the socioeconomic impacts of the crisis from May 2020 to June 2021.
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    Monitoring Impacts on Households in Lao PDR, Report No. 3, April-May 2021: Results Snapshot from a Rapid Monitoring Phone Survey (Round 3)
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World Bank
    As infections spiked across Southeast Asia, the number of confirmed cases in Lao PDR surged from fewer than 50 cases in early April to over 6,000 cases in August 2021. The government of Lao PDR announced a 14-day lockdown on April 22, 2021, which has since been extended several times. International borders remain closed. The measures have caused disruption to businesses and a reduction in working hours and labor earnings. The second Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has setback economic recovery and much uncertainty remains. To monitor the social and economic impacts of the pandemic, the World Bank is conducting a series of Coronavirus (COVID-19) rapid monitoring phone surveys of households in Lao PDR. This monitoring data helps provide insights Into t e effects of the pandemic on household well-being. The third-round survey was conducted from April 26 to May 30, 2021 during a second lockdown. This note provides a snapshot of results from the third-round survey.