Miscellaneous Knowledge Notes

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    Impacts of COVID-19 on Communities in the Philippines: Results from the Philippines High Frequency Social Monitoring of COVID-19 Impacts Round 2, April 8-14, 2021
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08-23) World Bank
    The brief outlines the finding from the second round of a high frequency social monitoring survey that aimed to assess the impact of COVID 19 (coronavirus) pandemic on the poorest and most vulnerable rural communities. The survey also aimed to determine the level of understanding and source of information of the communities pertaining to the COVID 19 vaccine. The second round of phone-in survey was conducted April 4-13, 2021 and across National Community Driven Development Project (NCDDP, implemented by community DSWD) communities in nine regions in Luzon, the Visayas and Mindanao. Some of the views and observations from the respondents included : Communities were markedly concerned about vaccine safety and effectiveness and looked to doctors and health practitioners for information about vaccination plans. Getting vaccinated would likely be difficult for seniors, persons with comorbidities, and children because of health reasons. Communities preferred food, cash, and livelihood assistance.
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    How Did the COVID-19 Crisis Affect Different Types of Workers in the Developing World?
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08) Kugler, Maurice ; Viollaz, Mariana ; Duque, Daniel ; Gaddis, Isis ; Newhouse, David ; Palacios-Lopez, Amparo ; Weber, Michael
    The COVID-19 pandemic is the worst global macroeconomic shock since the Great Depression. This brief reports which groups of workers have been hit hardest by the economic fallout of COVID-19 in developing countries. Larger shares of female, young, less educated, and urban workers stopped working, with gender differences being particularly pronounced. Gender gaps in work stoppage stemmed mainly from differences within sectors rather than differential employment patterns across sectors. Among those that remained employed, changes in sector of employment and employment type were similar for all groups except for age, where young workers saw a slightly larger decline in industrial employment. Employment increased between April and October, with larger gains for the groups with larger initial job losses, but for most groups these gains fell far short of pre pandemic employment levels. Finally, evidence from five countries suggests that phone surveys give a generally accurate picture of group disparities in employment rates following the onset of the crisis and are proving to be a valuable tool for monitoring differential impacts of the crisis on workers
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    Remote Learning: Evidence from Nepal during COVID-19
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-07) Radhakrishnan, Karthika ; Sabarwal, Shwetlena ; Sharma, Uttam ; Cullen, Claire ; Crossley, Colin ; Letsomo, Thato ; Angrist, Noam
    This note discusses early results from a distance education program on foundational numeracy for primary school students in Nepal during Coronavirus (COVID-19) evaluated in a randomized trial. The trial included 3,700 households with children in public school (grades 3-5). It provided support for foundational numeracy through mobile phone-based tutoring. The trial tested delivery through public school teachers and also through NGO facilitators. It led to a 30 percent increase in foundational numeracy, with teachers being slightly more effective at producing learning gains than NGO facilitators. These results suggest that instructional support through mobile phones can be a high-access and low-cost approach to providing instruction at scale
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    Monitoring Impacts on Households in Lao PDR, Report No. 3, April-May 2021: Results Snapshot from a Rapid Monitoring Phone Survey (Round 3)
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World Bank
    As infections spiked across Southeast Asia, the number of confirmed cases in Lao PDR surged from fewer than 50 cases in early April to over 6,000 cases in August 2021. The government of Lao PDR announced a 14-day lockdown on April 22, 2021, which has since been extended several times. International borders remain closed. The measures have caused disruption to businesses and a reduction in working hours and labor earnings. The second Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has setback economic recovery and much uncertainty remains. To monitor the social and economic impacts of the pandemic, the World Bank is conducting a series of Coronavirus (COVID-19) rapid monitoring phone surveys of households in Lao PDR. This monitoring data helps provide insights Into t e effects of the pandemic on household well-being. The third-round survey was conducted from April 26 to May 30, 2021 during a second lockdown. This note provides a snapshot of results from the third-round survey.
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    Cox’s Bazar Panel Survey, Rapid Follow-up Round 2: Status of Education Among School-Aged Children in Cox’s Bazar
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World Bank
    This brief summarizes findings from rapid welfare tracking surveys in Cox’s Bazar. Two rounds of tracking surveys were implemented via phone interviews in 2020 to monitor the impacts of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis on labor markets, wages, and household coping strategies. The first round was conducted during the COVID-related lockdowns in April-May 2020. A second round was conducted from October-December 2020, roughly six months after the government-imposed lockdowns, and also included a short module on education. Within the host community, the survey was further stratified into high exposure (HE, within three hours walking distance of a Rohingya camp) and low exposure (LE, more than three hours walking distance from a Rohingya camp) areas within the district.
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    Impact of COVID-19 on Learning: Evidence from Six Sub-Saharan African Countries
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-05) Dang, Hai-Anh ; Oseni, Gbemisola ; Zezza, Alberto ; Abanokova, Kseniya
    The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc upon global learning, with many countries facing severe school disruptions and closures. An emerging literature based on household survey data points to the pandemic as having exacerbated inequalities in education and learning in countries from Italy to Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This brief offers new analysis on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on learning outcomes for six sub-Saharan African countries. The authors analyze detailed household level data from several rounds of panel phone surveys collected by the World Bank in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, and Uganda. These surveys were first implemented between late April and early June 2020, after school closures due to the pandemic. In each survey round, the surveyed households were asked a set of core questions on topics such as knowledge of COVID and mitigation measures, access to educational activities during school closures, dynamics of employment, household income and livelihood, income loss and coping strategies, and received assistance.O
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    SMS Girl Data Insights: How Has COVID-19 Affected Support for Girls’ Education in Punjab, Pakistan?
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04) Hasan, Amer ; Geven, Koen ; Tahir, Ayesha
    This brief presents initial findings from an ongoing phone survey of families in Punjab, Pakistan designed to assess what is happening to girls’ elementary school education during COVID-19. The data used in this brief describe the experiences of 5,898 families in Punjab between August and October 2020. Data have been weighted to make the sample representative of all schools in Punjab. This brief provides information from an on-going survey. Further data is being collected and analyzed. Subsequent briefs will provide updates on these families as we learn more about their experiences. Unless otherwise noted, statistics are based on the full sample of households contacted, 90 percent of which are families with girls in grades 5-7 before the pandemic. Statistics are weighted to make the sample representative of all schools in Punjab and to allow comparisons between boys and girls.
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    Learning in the Time of COVID-19: Insights from Nepal
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-03-29) Radhakrishnan, Karthika ; Angrist, Noam ; Bergman, Peter ; Cullen, Claire ; Matsheng, Moitshepi ; Ramakrishnan, Anusha ; Sabarwal, Shwetlena ; Sharma, Uttam
    This note discusses the impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) and related school closures on primary students’ access to learning in Nepal. The primary source of data is a phone-survey with households that have children enrolled in public schools (grades 3-5) collected from November 2020 to February 2021. The authors describe student learning, parental perception of student levels, access to learning during school closures, and families’ emotional health during Coronavirus (COVID-19).
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    Education Services During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-01-25) World Bank
    This brief has been produced under the World Bank’s Indonesia Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) observatory, a partnership among multiple global practices at the Bank that aims to generate near-real-time insights on the impact of the pandemic to inform the Government of Indonesia’s policy response to the COVID-19 crisis. This brief describes results from the fourth round of monitoring between November to December 2020.
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    COVID-19 Impact Monitoring at the Household Level: Burkina Faso, Brief No. 5
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-01) Tsimpo Nkengne, Clarence ; Tiberti, Marco ; Backiny-Yetna, Prospere R. ; Costantini, Marco ; Koncobo, Zakaria ; Tiendrebeogo, Adama
    This note presents the results of the fifth round of a nationally re presentative telephone survey ( HFPS). Data collection took place between December 9 and December 30,2020. In addition to the 2,011 households successfully interviewed in the fourth round, in an effort to maintain sample size, additional 84 households that had not been successfully interviewed in previous rounds but did not ref use to participate in the survey were called in this fifth round. 9 households were excluded from the sample of Round 5 as they ref used to participate in Round 4. 1,968 households (93.9 4 percent of the 2,095 attempted) w ere contacted and 1,944 (92.79 percent) were successfully interviewed in Round 5. Of those contacted, 24 households ref used outright to be interviewed. The questionnaire includes key modules that had already been administered in previous rounds, namely, access to food and health services, employment and income, and shocks. Major additions were made to the questionnaire: (i) a module on Covid-19 (coronavirus) testing and vaccination; (ii) expansion of the education module to cover the resumption of classes and get an idea of the impact of Covid-19 on school attendance. For the sake of simplicity, this note focuses on these two new themes.