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COVID-19 High Frequency Phone Surveys in Latin America: Technical Note on Sampling Design, Weighting, and Estimation(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-09) Flores Cruz, RamiroThe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) high-frequency phone survey (HFPS) 2020 was conducted in 13 Latin American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru. It followed a panel sample over three waves of data collection in 12 countries and over four waves in Ecuador. All waves spanned from May to August 2020 and each wave’s collection period lasted about ten days on average. The survey was administered to one adult per household. Each respondent was presented with both individual and household-level questions. All national samples were based on a dual frame of cell and landline phones, and selected as a one-stage probability sample, with geographic stratification of landline numbers. The samples were generated through a random digit dialing (RDD) process covering all cell and landline telephone numbers active at the time of the sample selection. Survey estimates represent households with a landline or at least one cell phone and individuals of 18 years of age or above who have an active cell phone number or a landline at home.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04) Mejía-Mantilla, Carolina ; Olivieri, Sergio ; Rivadeneira, Ana ; Lara Ibarra, Gabriel ; Romero, JavierLatin American and the Caribbean is one of the regions in the world most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the welfare impacts for households have been severe. At the macroeconomic level, the World Bank estimates a contraction of 6.9 percent of the region’s GDP in 2020, due to pandemic-control measures and the deceleration of the global economy (World Bank, 2021). Regional export prices significantly dropped in the first semester of 2020 (5.2 percent) (Inter-American Development Bank, 2020), and although they began to recover in the second half of the year, the volume of goods-exports dropped by 8 points by the third quarter of 2020 (World Bank, 2021).
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-07) Ballon, Paola ; Lara Ibarra, Gabriel ; Olivieri, Sergio ; Rivadeneira, AnaCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to preoccupy the population in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC), as do the pandemic’s economic ramifications. The willingness and or ability of people to follow the recommendation to stay at home began to noticeably tail off by the beginning of July. A gradual return to work is observed across all countries, although the situation remains less dynamic than before COVID. Among people re-engaged in the labor market, the majority are coming back to their pre-COVID jobs. Food insecurity has receded but continues to be a major issue for many families in the region. COVID has served to exacerbate existing disparities across the region with respect to medical care. Education continued in most cases thanks to distance learning. On most countries, over 90 percent of children were able to participate in distance learning activities during second wave.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06) Ballon, Paola ; Cuesta, Jose ; Olivieri, Sergio ; Rivadeneira, AnaUnemployment is rising quickly and affected households are losing their main source of incomes. There is an obvious need for speeding up public intervention in the areas of virtual learning and access to medical attention and medicines across most vulnerable households. Reducing food consumption is the main mechanism to cope with the crisis for most households across the region. Despite a large rate of approval for governments’ interventions, lack of financial support to population, lack of enforcement or late response are the key area of public dissatisfaction. Unsurprisingly, there is a wide variation in abidance with lock-down measures mandated across countries. In countries like Bolivia, El Salvador, Honduras, and Peru over 90 percent of the population report to respect and follow the lockdown.