Miscellaneous Knowledge Notes

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    Promoting Green Growth through Water Resources Management: The Case of Republic of Korea
    ( 2016-01-01) Ishiwatari, Mikio ; Wataya, Eiko ; Shin, Taesun ; Kim, Daeil ; Song, Jiseon ; Kim, Seyi
    Water security and water quality affect numerous economic sectors and areas: agriculture, energy, disaster management, and others. Countries need balanced and integrated approaches that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Threats related to climate change have added to the complexity, and to the importance, of water resource management. Korea’s integrated water resources management approach since the 1990s reflects the country’s “green” climate-resilient development path. The Korean Green Growth Trust Fund’s (KGGTF) 3rd “Knowledge Note”, Promoting Green Growth through Water Resources Management: the Case of Republic of Korea, outlines key responses to Korea’s water resource challenges. The report highlights the Korean Government’s “Four Major River Restoration Project (4MRRP)”, a multi-purpose, green-growth infrastructure initiative. Involving five ministries and 78 local authorities in a comprehensive and integrated approach, the Note showcases lessons from 4MRRP for other countries to learn from Korea’s experience overcoming institutional, legislative, governance, technical and financial hurdles.
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    Leaping Forward in Green Transport: The Case of Korea
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015) Lee, Changgi ; Vandycke, Nancy L. ; Sung, Nak Moon ; Choi, Sang Dae ; Yi, Eun Joo Allison ; Lee, Sangjoo
    What do Bangkok, Cairo, Lagos, Mumbai, and Nairobi have in common? These megacities, like others in burgeoning emerging market economies, are magnets for people seeking better opportunities. They also suffer from serious traffic congestion, high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and heavy air pollution. These urban areas face a stark dilemma: economic expansion attracts more people and vehicles; but the resulting traffic and pollution hinder further growth while reducing the quality of life for their citizens. In spite of rapid growth, urbanization, and motorization, Korea has succeeded so well in expanding the use of public transport that it has stabilized energy consumption per capita in the road sector. In 2010, Korea took aim at a new 10-year goal with its green transport master plan: reduce GHG emissions by one-third while maintaining its competitiveness. To do so, Korea seems poised to create more cutting-edge transport innovations that can serve as models for other countries.
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    The Green Growth Movement in the Republic of Korea: Option or Necessity?
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015) Choi, Sang Dae
    To achieve the new national development vision, Korean leadership took a strategic approach in which the government played an active role, similar to the visionary approach used to achieve rapid economic development in the 1960s and 1970s. The government established a legal framework on low carbon and green growth, set up a governance structure to implement green growth initiatives systematically, and established fiscal policies and budget resources to support the initiatives firmly. The purpose of this note is primarily to explain why Korea adopted a green growth strategy as a new national development paradigm and how it was implemented by the government. Section one gives overview; section two illustrates why green growth was a necessity in Korea; section three describes how green growth was implemented by the Korean government, particularly with respect to institutional arrangements and fiscal adjustments for green growth; section four presents the key outcomes thus far; and section five identifies lessons that can be applied in other countries.