Miscellaneous Knowledge Notes

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  • Publication
    Climate Change Institutional Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-14) World Bank
    Climate change poses particularly difficult challenges for public sector institutions. Climate change impacts all sectors of the economy and society. Action to address climate change requires coordination among multiple government and nongovernment actors. The extended time frame over which climate change unfolds requires a capability to plan, implement, and sustain a credible commitment to increasingly ambitious policies over multiple political cycles. There will be winners and losers. Policies may be contested. The Climate Change Institutional Assessment (CCIA) identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the institutional framework for addressing these climate change governance challenges. The audience for the assessment is officials of center-of-government agencies responsible for policy, planning, and finance, agencies with leading roles in climate change policy, and inter-ministerial climate change bodies.
  • Publication
    Investment Contracts
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) UNCTAD; World Bank
    This note provides guidance on the form and content of contracts between investors and governments pertaining to agricultural investments. The best guarantee of positive benefits from foreign investment is a solid foundation of domestic laws that are properly enforced. In many developing countries, however, the necessary domestic laws may not be in place or may not be sufficiently detailed. Even when they are in place, they may not be implemented or enforced. Contracts can help fill the gaps in domestic laws by providing more detailed guidance on what should be contained in the assessments, and using international standards and best practice as the reference points. However, contracts need to be drafted carefully to maximize benefits and reduce risks.
  • Publication
    Monitoring Investments
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) UNCTAD; World Bank
    This note provides guidance on how to monitor the performance and impact of agricultural investments, and on which aspects to observe. Ongoing monitoring of investments is a key way to hold investors accountable for contractual commitments and deliver the expected benefits to the country and surrounding communities. It also facilitates early identification of emerging negative impacts or of failing investments, enabling remedial actions. Monitoring is often deficient because of a lack of resources and systematic procedures, which allows negative impacts to escalate beyond what will otherwise be the case. Internal monitoring is likewise good practice for investors and their financiers, though the field research indicated room for improvement.
  • Publication
    Public Transparency
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) UNCTAD; World Bank
    This note provides guidance on the type of information about agricultural investments that investors and governments can make publicly available. Transparency about certain aspects of investments can improve relations between investors and communities, enable external stakeholders to hold investors to commitments, and improve investors’ public image. Although some information should be kept private to protect commercial interests, in general the amount of publicly available information is insufficient for transparent, accountable conduct of agricultural investments. This has often led to fear, mistrust, and resentment, and created operational and financial difficulties for investors. Some investors and governments have recently shifted toward a more transparent approach, but the risk of misuse of information needs to be managed.
  • Publication
    Grievance Redress Mechanisms
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03) UNCTAD; World Bank
    This note provides guidance on how investors can provide effective remedies to affected parties who perceive that their rights have been adversely affected by business activities. A grievance redress mechanism (GRM) is a set of arrangements that enable local communities, employees, out growers, and other affected stakeholders to raise grievances with the investor and seek redress when they perceive a negative impact arising from the investor’s activities. It is a key way to mitigate, manage, and resolve potential or realized negative impacts, as well as fulfill obligations under international human rights law and contribute to positive relations with communities and employees. GRMs have been operated with varying degrees of success. This noteprovides guidance and examples on how to improve the design and implementation of mechanisms for mutual benefit.