Miscellaneous Knowledge Notes

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  • Publication
    Convergence in the Sahel: How to Link Humanitarian Cash Assistance and National Social Protection Systems?
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-18) Saidi, Mira; Santamaria Ruiz, Claudia
    Convergence is the merging or coming together of separate elements. In the realm of social protection, this translates into the effective coordination and alignment of different humanitarian and development initiatives toward a shared national vision. Convergence between humanitarian operations and national social protection systems has gained momentum in the last few years, as reflected in the humanitarian-development nexus. In the Sahel, a growing overlap between humanitarian activities and government interventions is emerging, particularly with the advent of adaptive social protection. Humanitarian assistance tends to operate in emergencies and volatile contexts with short-term horizons. In contrast, national social protection systems, including regular social safety nets, typically are longer term, more predictable, and focus on issues such as structural poverty rather than emergencies. However, both types of interventions share a broad goal to protect the poorest and most vulnerable and to promote their resilience to future shocks. Hence opportunities to better connect humanitarian assistance to the national social protection system do exist, particularly in the context of protracted crises.
  • Publication
    Count me in!: World Bank Education Global Practice - Impr oving Education Outcomes for Girls and Young Women
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-11) World Bank
    Ensuring that all girls and young women receive a quality education is their human right, a global development imperative, and a strategic priority for the World Bank. Achieving gender equality is central to the World Bank Group twin goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity on a livable planet. As the largest development partner in education globally, the World Bank ensures that all of its education projects are gender-sensitive, and works to overcome barriers that are preventing girls and boys from equally benefiting from countries’ investments in education.
  • Publication
    World Bank Climate and Health Program: Putting Health at the Center of Climate Investment and Action
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-11) World Bank
    As the climate crisis escalates, evidence is mounting about its growing harm to human health and well-being. Indeed, this relationship between climate change and human health is now one of the defining challenges of the era, and, at current trajectories of change, it will remain so for some time to come. The World Bank has launched a new Climate and Health Program whose aim is to slow and blunt the force of climate change’s dangerous collision with human health. The program pivots on three foundational components that will: assess country climate-health vulnerabilities and impacts to design country-tailored solutions; scale up investments to build low-carbon resilient health systems; and build and deepen partnerships at global, regional, and country levels to multiply and magnify these efforts. The Bank will use the full range of its financing instruments for both adaptation and mitigation activities.
  • Publication
    Ukraine - Human Development Update in Focus: Disability and Inclusion
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-04) World Bank
    The adverse impact of Russia’s invasion on persons with disabilities is the main focus of this human development update. It looks at how the Government of Ukraine is strengthening the protection of vulnerable groups to ensure inclusive service delivery.
  • Publication
    Viet Nam Macro Monitoring
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-03) World Bank
    Industrial production in Viet Nam decreased due to the Tet holiday in February 2024. The subdued domestic consumption and private investment warrants close monitoring. In contrast, recent high frequency data suggests strong upside risks to growth in advanced economies, especially US which could in turn induce a stronger recovery in Viet Nam. The government could further accelerate the implementation of its public investment program to support aggregate demand. Addressing banking sector vulnerabilities, including strengthening prudential supervision, early interventions and bank resolution and crisis management, would help put the banks on a stronger footing for recovery.
  • Publication
    Does Fiscal Policy Have a Role in Improving Child Well-Being in Ethiopia?
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-01) Ambel, Alemayehu A.; Belete, Getachew Yirga; Fiala, Oliver
    Taxes, government spending, and public transfers affect the well-being of children and adults, albeit in different ways. There is, however, a dearth of empirical evidence on the impact of these policies on the well-being of children in low-income countries. This policy brief summarizes a recent study by Ambel, Belete, and Fiala (2024), which investigates the effects of fiscal actions on poverty and inequality among children in Ethiopia. The study applies the Commitment to Equity for Children (CEQ4C) methodology on survey data integrated with administrative data. It finds that the fiscal system in Ethiopia is progressive, poverty-reducing, and equalizing for children. However, there are observed differences in the effects of some of the fiscal policy components, as many of these effects are stronger for girls and children in rural areas. The study also highlights the essential role of public services in improving children’s well-being.
  • Publication
    Women, International Trade, and the Law: Breaking Barriers for Gender Equality in Export-Related Activities
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-01) Laperle-Forget, Lolita; Gürbüz Cuneo, Alev
    Women are a powerful engine for international trade and economic growth. As workers, small-scale traders, entrepreneurs, and producers, their engagement in export activities has the potential not only to elevate overall productivity and competitiveness in the international market but also to reduce poverty. However, women encounter multiple obstacles and legal barriers when participating in trade, hindering the full realization of economic gains that can be achieved through trade liberalization. This Brief analyzes women’s participation in international trade and impediments to gender equality in national laws measured in the Women, Business and the Law index. Specifically, in 2024, 504 legal provisions across 145 economies are identified as creating unequal conditions between men and women to take part in international trade. Drawing from examples around the world, the Brief further discusses the role of trade instruments, especially preferential trade agreements, in eliminating legal barriers that discriminate against women, and enhancing their involvement in export-related activities to reap the benefits of trade on global welfare.
  • Publication
    Vietnam - Upgrading infrastructure design for universal accessibility
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-21) World Bank
    The World Bank’s Vietnam Scaling Up Urban Upgrading Project aimed to develop sustainable urban infrastructure in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta Region. The project focused on universally accessible design principles for infrastructure development and aimed to strengthen planning capacity, improve infrastructure design, increase awareness of universal accessibility, and promote green infrastructure. A QII Partnership grant supported the project by facilitating the application of principles and providing technical advice. These activities will benefit seven urbanizing cities, improve livelihoods, and reach approximately 90,000 individuals in low-income areas with universal accessibility design. It has also informed new World Bank initiatives to improve accessibility regionally and globally.
  • Publication
    Nepal Crisis Preparedness Gap Analysis: Policy Brief
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-13) World Bank
    Crisis preparedness is cral to preventing shocks from becoming crises. Investments in ex ante preparedness are especially relevant in countries like Nepal that face high levels of exposure and vulnerability to a range of risks. In seeking to identify opportunities to strengthen the Government of Nepal’s (GoN’s) capacity to prepare for crisis events in an effective and timely manner, this Technical Annex presents findings from the application of the Crisis Preparedness Gap Analysis (CPGA) diagnostic in the country. It provides details on findings and entry points across the five componnts of crisis preparedness. For a summary, please refer to the accompanying CPGA Nepal Briefing Note. Following a brief description of the CPGA methodology, the Technical Annex presents a summary of findings from each CPGA component alongside identification of entry points and opportunities to strengthen crisis preparedness in the country. To provide a holistic assessment of preparedness, the CPGA focuses on five core components of crisis preparedness. These are (i) Legal and Institutional Foundations, (ii) Understanding and Monitoring Risks, (iii) Financial Preparedness, (iv) Primary Response, and (v) Social and Livelihood Support.
  • Publication
    Thailand Monthly Economic Monitor, February 2024
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-11) World Bank
    Thailand's economic recovery lagged further behind ASEAN peers as growth was a disappointing 1.7 percent in the fourth quarter and resulted in slower annual growth of 1.9 percent in 2023. Growth was hampered by weak external sector and delayed budget approval. In December, economic activity softened due to weak manufacturing, investment, and goods export. Inflation remained negative for the third consecutive month due to falling energy and food prices as well as energy subsidies. In this context, the Bank of Thailand held its policy rate. The fiscal deficit decreased due to the delayed budget approval. In January, the Thai baht remained stable against major trading partners, despite significant net foreign portfolio outflows.