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Enterprising Women: Toward Equal Business Opportunity in Southeast Asia(Washington, DC, 2022-08-30) World BankThis report explores gender differences in entrepreneurship for micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSME) in Southeast Asia. It analyzes data from five Southeast Asian countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Timor-Leste, and Vietnam, and reviews existing evidence from across the region. Using data from household and firm-level surveys, the report establishes stylized facts about gender gaps in participation in entrepreneurship and in business performance for two types of businesses: microbusinesses and small and medium enterprises (SME). Microbusinesses include businesses with less than 5 employees, and SMEs include businesses with between 5 and 100 employees. This study focuses on MSMEs because they account for 97 percent of all enterprises in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation countries and because the owner’s gender may have a greater influence on the outcomes of MSMEs than large businesses, which are more likely to have multiple owners or be part of a larger corporation. After establishing stylized facts about gender gaps in entrepreneurship, the report employs various econometric. techniques to understand better the factors that are associated with these gaps. Finally, the report makes a case for policy action and presents a review of global evidence on how these factors are best addressed.
Migrating to Opportunity: Overcoming Barriers to Labor Mobility in Southeast Asia(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2017-10-08) Testaverde, Mauro ; Moroz, Harry ; Hollweg, Claire H. ; Schmillen, AchimThe movement of people in Southeast Asia is an issue of increasing importance. Countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are now the origin of 8 percent of the world's migrants. These countries host only 4 percent of the world's migrants but intra-regional migration has turned Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand into regional migration hubs that are home to 6.5 million ASEAN migrants. However, significant international and domestic labor mobility costs limit the ability of workers to change firms, sectors, and geographies in ASEAN. This report takes an innovative approach to estimate the costs for workers to migrate internationally. Singapore and Malaysia have the lowest international labor mobility costs in ASEAN while workers migrating to Myanmar and Vietnam have the highest costs. Singapore and Malaysia's more developed migration systems are a key reason for their lower labor mobility costs. How easily workers can move to take advantage of new opportunities is important in determining how they fare under the increased economic integration planned for ASEAN. To study this question, the report simulates how worker welfare is affected by enhanced trade integration under different scenarios of labor mobility costs. Region-wide, worker welfare would be 14 percent higher if barriers to mobility were reduced for skilled workers, and an additional 29 percent if barriers to mobility were lowered for all workers. Weaknesses in migration systems increase international labor mobility costs, but policy reforms can help. Destination countries should work toward systems that are responsive to economic needs and consistent with domestic policies. Sending countries should balance protections for migrant workers with the needs of economic development.
Matching Aspirations : Skills for Implementing Cambodia's Growth Strategy(World Bank, Phnom Penh, 2012-03) World BankOver the past decade, Cambodia improved the skills of its workforce at a slower rate than other countries in East Asia. And, although Cambodia's firms do not perceive skills as their main business constraint, skills shortages may negatively affect the process of both industrial and agricultural upgrading and economic diversification. Employers point to a structural imbalance in skills supply, including a relative shortage of vocational training graduates compared to university graduates. This report provides valuable insight for Cambodia to develop the skills necessary to match the country's development aspiration. At the same time, it outlines specific actions to create opportunities for access to information in the skills market, to expand household-oriented interventions, to improve school retention, and to strengthen second-chance options - including technical and vocational education and training. This report further proposes how to expand financing for early childhood development effectively, to strengthen institutions, and to promote incentives toward better results among skills providers, including higher education institutions. The analysis in this report represents an important collaborative contribution to Cambodia's growth strategy and human development agenda.
World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development(Washington, DC, 2007) World BankThe world's demand for food is expected to double within the next 50 years, while the natural resources that sustain agriculture will become increasingly scarce, degraded, and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In many poor countries, agriculture accounts for at least 40 percent of GDP and 80 percent of employment. At the same time, about 70 percent of the world's poor live in rural areas and most depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. World Development Report 2008 seeks to assess where, when, and how agriculture can be an effective instrument for economic development, especially development that favors the poor. It examines several broad questions: How has agriculture changed in developing countries in the past 20 years? What are the important new challenges and opportunities for agriculture? Which new sources of agricultural growth can be captured cost effectively in particular in poor countries with large agricultural sectors as in Africa? How can agricultural growth be made more effective for poverty reduction? How can governments facilitate the transition of large populations out of agriculture, without simply transferring the burden of rural poverty to urban areas? How can the natural resource endowment for agriculture be protected? How can agriculture's negative environmental effects be contained? This year's report marks the 30th year the World Bank has been publishing the World Development Report.