Directions in Urban Development
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These briefs address emerging trends and topics of relevance to cities, towns, national governments and development agencies as they face the challenges of urbanization. This series draws attention to new research and policy issues with references and resources for researchers, policy analysts, and practitioners alike who will wish to further explore these, topics.
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Tokyo's Emissions Trading System: A Review of its Operation since 2010(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-06) World BankThis note reviews the operations and experience of Tokyo's emissions trading system since its launch in 2010 and follows on from an earlier issue of directions in urban development that described the design and development process of the system. In January 2013, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) announced that FY2011-the second full year of Emissions Trading System (ETS) operation from April 2011 to March 2012-saw a 23 percent reduction in the emissions from participating facilities covered by the ETS, compared with the base year. Total emissions from these facilities in FY2011 were 7.22 million tons of CO2, which was some 2.16 million tons less than the base year. Notably, 93 percent of these facilities achieved reductions in excess of their obligations for the first compliance period in FY2011. This surpassed the first year performance recorded in FY2010, where emissions were 13 percent below the base year, with 64 percent of facilities achieving reductions in excess of obligations for the first compliance period. Under Tokyo's ETS, facilities that reduce emissions below the target may sell the excess reductions as credits. Conversely, if actual emissions reductions fall short of the target, they may purchase credits to make up the difference. Apart from excess emissions reductions, eligible credits include offsets from small and medium sized facilities, large facilities outside Tokyo, renewable energy credits, and credits from Saitama prefectures ETS. TMG has provided a framework for long-term goal setting by indicating the estimated emissions reductions that would be required in the second compliance period.
Impacts of Financial, Food and Fuel Crisis on the Urban Poor(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-01) Baker, Judy L.The urban poor are particularly vulnerable in times of crisis due to their heavy reliance on the cash economy, job losses and wage reductions in urban based industries, and no agricultural production to fall back on. Prioritizing investments in cities can help to mitigation impacts in the short run and reduce risks in the future. Well targeted safety nets, workfare programs, and urban agriculture can play an importance role in cushioning the impacts for the urban poor during difficult times.
Tokyo's Emissions Trading System : A Case Study(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-06) Lee, Marcus ; Colopinto, KimberlyThe Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) has developed the world's first cap and trade program at the city level targeting energy-related CO2. Called the Emissions Trading System (ETS), the program took effect in April 2010 and covers 1,340 large facilities including industrial factories, public buildings, educational institutions and commercial buildings. Targeting the city level for the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions is of vital importance for climate change mitigation goals. Although there are several ETSs targeting GHGs around the world, none have operated at the city level until Tokyo's. City-based ETS systems have been largely aimed at enhancing local air quality by targeting local pollutants that may also happen to be GHGs. There are three particularly relevant cases of ETSs covering local pollutants at the city level. Tokyo's ETS is unique because it is the only one targeting GHGs, with the primary objective of mitigating climate change. Emissions trading are a market-based approach for addressing air pollution problems. If designed and implemented well, emissions trading systems can be economically efficient, providing incentives for participants to reduce their emissions of specified pollutants. An ETS, when functioning well, results in overall emissions remaining within the cap, while individual participants have the flexibility of a market-based mechanism within which to operate.
Impacts of Financial, Food, and Fuel Crisis on the Urban Poor(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-12) Baker, Judy L.The effects of the recent financial crisis are only beginning to be felt in many developing countries, but economic activity is declining rapidly with far reaching impacts. This crisis comes at a time when most countries are still struggling with the impacts of rising food and fuel prices. Though global food and fuel prices have softened somewhat in recent months from the highs earlier in 2008, there has been much volatility and they are anticipated to remain high over the medium term. It is estimated that the high food and fuel prices alone have increased the number of extremely poor in the world by at least 100 million. While impacts of the crises affect both urban and rural populations, the urban poor have been hit hardest in this recent food and fuel crisis, and in previous financial crisis, given their heavy reliance on the cash economy, no agricultural production to fall back on, and wage reductions and employment losses at urban based industries. This has resulted in social unrest in a number of cities earlier in 2008 all over the developing world.