Directions in Urban Development

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These briefs address emerging trends and topics of relevance to cities, towns, national governments and development agencies as they face the challenges of urbanization. This series draws attention to new research and policy issues with references and resources for researchers, policy analysts, and practitioners alike who will wish to further explore these, topics.

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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    Urbanization Trends in Bolivia: Opportunities and Challenges
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-05) Trohanis, Zoe Elena; Zangerling, Bontje Marie; Sanchez-Reaza, Javier
    This note is a summary of a report that considers urban areas as the complement to rural areas that will allow the Plurinational State of Bolivia to achieve the goals set forth in its Patriotic Agenda for the Bicentennial 2025. The report uses data available at the national level from censuses and household surveys from the National Statistics Institute (INE) and the Social and Economic Policy Analysis Unit of the Ministry of Development Planning (UDAPE) to provide a first approximation to: (i) identify opportunities that urban areas present to achieve the objectives of the Patriotic Agenda regarding the reduction of poverty and universal coverage of basic services; (ii) understand and overcome the challenges that the expansion of urban areas present, and understand the growth dynamics of different types of cities; (iii) review the institutional framework and planning tools currently available for urban development; and (iv) provide suggestions for future analysis. However, due to limitations of the available data, the report does not include an economic analysis of urban areas nor an in-depth analysis of issues at city level. It is expected that the results of the report can inform the projects that the Government of Bolivia is developing and implementing in cooperation with the World Bank and other partners, such as improving national data, urban labor markets, poverty and informality, and investment for infrastructure in cities.
  • Publication
    Tokyo's Emissions Trading System: A Review of its Operation since 2010
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-06) World Bank
    This note reviews the operations and experience of Tokyo's emissions trading system since its launch in 2010 and follows on from an earlier issue of directions in urban development that described the design and development process of the system. In January 2013, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) announced that FY2011-the second full year of Emissions Trading System (ETS) operation from April 2011 to March 2012-saw a 23 percent reduction in the emissions from participating facilities covered by the ETS, compared with the base year. Total emissions from these facilities in FY2011 were 7.22 million tons of CO2, which was some 2.16 million tons less than the base year. Notably, 93 percent of these facilities achieved reductions in excess of their obligations for the first compliance period in FY2011. This surpassed the first year performance recorded in FY2010, where emissions were 13 percent below the base year, with 64 percent of facilities achieving reductions in excess of obligations for the first compliance period. Under Tokyo's ETS, facilities that reduce emissions below the target may sell the excess reductions as credits. Conversely, if actual emissions reductions fall short of the target, they may purchase credits to make up the difference. Apart from excess emissions reductions, eligible credits include offsets from small and medium sized facilities, large facilities outside Tokyo, renewable energy credits, and credits from Saitama prefectures ETS. TMG has provided a framework for long-term goal setting by indicating the estimated emissions reductions that would be required in the second compliance period.
  • Publication
    The Rio de Janeiro Low Carbon City Development Program : A Business Model for Green and Climate-Friendly Growth in Cities
    (Washington, DC, 2012-11) World Bank
    The Rio de Janeiro Low Carbon City Development Program is an ISO-certified framework and set of comprehensive requirements to help the city to plan, implement, monitor, and account for low carbon investments and climate change mitigation actions across all sectors in the city over time. The Program will enable the city to plan and implement the mitigation actions needed to achieve its city-wide mitigation goals, as well as credibly and transparently demonstrate the achievement of those goals through diligent monitoring and accounting of the actions taken. This issue of Directions in Urban Development describes the context underlying the development of the Program in Rio, and the key components of such an ISO-certified program including roles and responsibilities, planning and evaluation, and the program process.
  • Publication
    Impacts of Financial, Food and Fuel Crisis on the Urban Poor
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-01) Baker, Judy L.
    The urban poor are particularly vulnerable in times of crisis due to their heavy reliance on the cash economy, job losses and wage reductions in urban based industries, and no agricultural production to fall back on. Prioritizing investments in cities can help to mitigation impacts in the short run and reduce risks in the future. Well targeted safety nets, workfare programs, and urban agriculture can play an importance role in cushioning the impacts for the urban poor during difficult times.
  • Publication
    Tokyo's Emissions Trading System : A Case Study
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-06) Lee, Marcus; Colopinto, Kimberly
    The Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) has developed the world's first cap and trade program at the city level targeting energy-related CO2. Called the Emissions Trading System (ETS), the program took effect in April 2010 and covers 1,340 large facilities including industrial factories, public buildings, educational institutions and commercial buildings. Targeting the city level for the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions is of vital importance for climate change mitigation goals. Although there are several ETSs targeting GHGs around the world, none have operated at the city level until Tokyo's. City-based ETS systems have been largely aimed at enhancing local air quality by targeting local pollutants that may also happen to be GHGs. There are three particularly relevant cases of ETSs covering local pollutants at the city level. Tokyo's ETS is unique because it is the only one targeting GHGs, with the primary objective of mitigating climate change. Emissions trading are a market-based approach for addressing air pollution problems. If designed and implemented well, emissions trading systems can be economically efficient, providing incentives for participants to reduce their emissions of specified pollutants. An ETS, when functioning well, results in overall emissions remaining within the cap, while individual participants have the flexibility of a market-based mechanism within which to operate.
  • Publication
    The Global City Indicators Program : A More Credible Voice for Cities
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-06) Bhada, Perinaz
    The Global City Indicators Program (GCIP) is a decentralized, city-led initiative that enables cities to measure, report, and improve their performance and quality of life, facilitate capacity building, and share best practices through an easy-to-use web portal. Managing cities effectively is critical and becoming more complex as population growth and economic development are taking place in urban areas. Today's big challenges, such as poverty reduction, economic development, climate change, and the creation and maintenance of an inclusive and peaceful society, will all need to be met through the responses of cities. So too will the day-to-day challenges of garbage collection, responding to the house on fire and larger disasters, and facilitating the provision of water, electricity, education, health care, and the myriad of other services that make life more productive and enjoyable. Standardized indicators are essential in order to measure the performance of cities, capture trends and developments, and support cities in becoming global partners.
  • Publication
    Infrastructure and Heritage Conservation : Opportunities for Urban Revitilization and Economic Development
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-02) Ebbe, Katrinka
    Cultural endowments such as traditional architecture, unique streetscapes, and historic sites are increasingly recognized as important economic resources in both developed and developing countries. Cities are often an important focal point for development based on these resources because they provide concentrations of heritage assets, infrastructure services, private sector activity, and human resources. Improving the conservation and management of urban heritage is not only important for preserving its historic significance, but also for its potential to increase income-earning opportunities, city livability, and competitiveness. Many of the World Bank's client countries have been successful in supporting cultural heritage activities within some large infrastructure projects.
  • Publication
    Impacts of Financial, Food, and Fuel Crisis on the Urban Poor
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-12) Baker, Judy L.
    The effects of the recent financial crisis are only beginning to be felt in many developing countries, but economic activity is declining rapidly with far reaching impacts. This crisis comes at a time when most countries are still struggling with the impacts of rising food and fuel prices. Though global food and fuel prices have softened somewhat in recent months from the highs earlier in 2008, there has been much volatility and they are anticipated to remain high over the medium term. It is estimated that the high food and fuel prices alone have increased the number of extremely poor in the world by at least 100 million. While impacts of the crises affect both urban and rural populations, the urban poor have been hit hardest in this recent food and fuel crisis, and in previous financial crisis, given their heavy reliance on the cash economy, no agricultural production to fall back on, and wage reductions and employment losses at urban based industries. This has resulted in social unrest in a number of cities earlier in 2008 all over the developing world.
  • Publication
    City-Regions : Emerging Lessons from England
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-10) Larkin, Kieran; Marshall, Adam
    The emergence of city-regions in England offers some useful lessons for the World Bank partners in developing countries. The city-region approach, as applied in England touches upon issues of decentralization, intergovernmental fiscal relations, governance, and the need to realign outdated administrative arrangements with a metropolitan area's economic footprint, among other highly relevant topics for rapidly urbanizing cities in developing countries. As a concept, city-regions are designed to promote cross-boundary collaboration across large urban areas. They aim to facilitate horizontal and vertical co-ordination between multiple jurisdictions. They advance the concept of an appropriate spatial scale for economic development functions such as transport, housing and training. They capture urban hinterlands, as well as core cities. This note explains: 1) the emergence of city-regions in England, 2) the current policy framework in England, 3) a case study of Greater Manchester, 4) city-region contracts as a policy tool to codify intergovernmental institutional arrangements, and 5) transferable lessons.