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PublicationAssessment of Farmer-Led Irrigation Development in Niger(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06-21) Soumaila, AmadouNiger is a large landlocked country whose northern two-thirds lies within the Sahara Desert with a population of about 21.5 million people. Most of the population is concentrated in areas around the Niger River in the southwestern corner of the country and along its long southern border with Nigeria. Niger’s economic activity is concentrated on traditional activities, primarily agriculture, livestock, forestry, and fishery but also informal trade and production. The country has experienced declining average rainfall, desertification, recurring droughts, and deforestation. Undernourishment is widespread. Agricultural risks, primarily droughts in Niger, have severe economic consequences with wide repercussions. Farmer-led irrigation (FLI) in the Niger context could be defined as irrigation privately owned and managed by farmers. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent and the environment of FLI development in Niger, the challenges and constraints, and the business opportunities to be piloted. PublicationWater Infrastructure Resilience: Examples of Dams, Wastewater Treatment Plants, and Water Supply and Sanitation Systems(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) Stip, Clementine; Mao, Zhimin; Bonzanigo, Laura; Browder, Greg; Tracy, JacobWater systems are a special kind of infrastructure systems because they perform a dual role: theyprovide water services while also reducing risks to other services from natural hazards such asfloods and droughts. This report aims to inform water system managers on the importance of andmeasures to build the resilience of water service provision to natural hazards and climate riskswhile ensuring that water systems can safeguard service provision by reducing their exposure tothe risks associated with natural hazards. When choosing resilience measures, water systemsmanagers should consider the following six principles while also incorporating the concept ofdecision making under deep uncertainty: 1) knowing the system through network analysis andcriticality assessment; 2) improving maintenance to reduce vulnerability and improve resilience;3) involving users for active demand management; 4) working with nature to manage and respondto risks; 5) developing and improving contingency management; and 6) applying innovation whereappropriate. In addition, since water systems reduce the risks associated with certain naturalhazards to other services like power, transport and water itself, such safeguard services shouldbe accounted for when making the case for resilience investments in water systems. PublicationBuilding the Resilience of WSS Utilities to Climate Change and Other Threats: A Road Map(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-12-29) World Bank GroupWater supply and sanitation (WSS) utilities are expected to become increasingly susceptible to the expected impacts of climate change. WSS utility planners and engineers have dealt with natural climate variances and disaster planning as part of the design process for many years. However, the traditional methods for these plans have not considered the deep uncertainty surrounding many future conditions, which are further exacerbated by climate change. To help utilities incorporate resilience and robustness in their choices, this road map proposes a process in three phases that can inform the design of strategies necessary to WSS services provision. The road map builds on the understanding that climate change is most often an amplifier of existing uncertainties (many of which are threats), and, as such, should not be evaluated as a stand-alone impact. The approach reveals the strengths and vulnerabilities of investment plans concisely and helps utilities invest robustly by identifying near-term, no-regret projects that can be undertaken now, while maintaining flexibility in pursuing additional actions adaptively as future conditions evolve. These results can be achieved both with a qualitative exploration and a quantitative assessment, depending on the context and the resources available. PublicationRomania Water Diagnostic Report: Moving toward EU Compliance, Inclusion, and Water Security(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06) World Bank GroupThis diagnostic report was prepared by the World Bank to support its water sector dialogue with the Government of Romania. It aims to provide stakeholders, especially from the Romanian Government and the European Commission, with a comprehensive stock-taking of the situation in the Romanian water sector in 2017, 10 years after the country joined the EU. The report documents the current situation, discusses the main lessons learned from reforms in water resources management, water supply sanitation and irrigation, and identifies the key water challenges faced by Romania. While not pretending to cover all possible water-related issues (due inter alia to limited access to some information), it seeks to identify the key policy issues and indicate what steps the government could consider in the near future. The situation in the water sector in Romania is analyzed through the lens of water security, with a focus on compliance with EU water legislation and the inclusion of the poor. Water security is a broad concept that encompasses ensuring sustainable use of water resources, delivering affordable services to all, and mitigating water-related risks in a context of change — the goal being to build a water secure future for the people, the economy and the environment in a context of global changes. In the case of Romania, the over-arching concept of water security is closely linked to compliance and inclusion. PublicationResilient Water Supply and Sanitation Services: The Case of Japan(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-01) World BankNatural disasters have increasingly damaged water supply and sanitation (WSS) facilities and infrastructure, leaving entire communities without safe and reliable drinking water and the appropriate disposal of wastewater. These emergency events could arise from inundation of facilities, loss of electricity, and exposure and disruption of infrastructures. Less severe impacts can arise from increased siltation of reservoirs and slow-onset events such as droughts, thus having longer-term effects on the resilience and reliability of services. These WSS service failures or interruptions could set off a cascading effect across interconnected infrastructure systems including public health and fire services, which in turn could pose both direct and indirect economic impacts. Japan has built the resilience of its WSS services through an adaptive management approach based on lessons learned from past natural disasters. This experience offers key insights for low- and middle-income countries seeking to sustain and build resilience of WSS services. PublicationWater Sector Experience of Output-Based Aid(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06) Global Partnership on Output-Based AidConvenient access to safe water is central to human health and development. Water-borne disease remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, much of which could be eliminated by a combination of better water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH). The WHO estimates that around 502 000 deaths a year in low and middle income countries from diarrheal disease are attributable to unsafe water, and that over 1 000 children under 5 die each day from diarrheal disease caused by inadequate WASH. UNWomen estimates that in Sub-Saharan Africa alone, women and girls spend 40 billion hours a year collecting water, the time valued at around $20 billion a year. Sustainable development goal no. 6 ‘ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all’ creates a framework for tackling the challenge of mobilizing the large investments required and making WaSH available at affordable prices. The purpose of the study on which this report is based is to analyze, capture and synthesize lessons learned from closed GPOBA water projects in order to evaluate the impact of the subsidy schemes and inform the scale-up and replication of OBA approaches. These lessons offer insight to successes and failures of project design and implementation as well as solutions to more complex projects and/or less tested environments. PublicationSeptage Management Pilots and Capacity Building in Indonesia: Synthesis Report(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-05-23) World Bank GroupThis report is a synthesis of the technical assistance (TA) and recommendations, carried out by the World Bank water and sanitation program (WSP) since September 2014. To achieve the target of 100 percent improved sanitation, there is a national drive to improve fecal sludge management (FSM). This TA recognizes that to achieve the goals it is necessary to support the development of national FSM policies, regulations, and guidelines, while also improving capacity at the local level by supporting the implementation of improved FSM models in target cities. The objective of the TA was to provide government with tested advice on how to scale up improved septage management nationwide through: (i) improvement of septage management in three cities through the application of new management models (local level); and (ii) assistance to national government in training and capacity building and the formulation of policies and regulations to improve septage management at scale (national level). This report is structured as follows: chapter one is the executive summary; chapter two gives the background to sanitation in Indonesia and to fecal sludge management in particular; chapter three provides an overview of the TA approach; chapter four gives details of the implementation of the TA; chapter five summarizes the lessons learned; and chapter six outlines the recommendations and next steps. PublicationPrioritizing Infrastructure Investments in Panama: Pilot Application of the World Bank Infrastructure Prioritization Framework(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-04) Marcelo, Darwin; Mandri-Perrott, Cledan; House, SchuylerInfrastructure services are significant determinants of economic development, social welfare, trade, and public health. As such, they typically feature strongly in national development plans. While governments may receive many infrastructure project proposals, however, resources are often insufficient to finance the full set of proposals in the short term. Leading up to 2020, an estimated US$836 billion - 1 trillion will be required each year to meet growth targets worldwide (Ruiz-Nunez and Wei, 2014; World Bank). Global estimates of infrastructure investments required to support economic growth and human development lie in the range of US$65-70 trillion by 2030 (OECD, 2006), while the estimated pool of available funds is limited to approximately US$45 trillion (B20, 2014). The past twenty years have also seen a shift towards decentralized infrastructure planning. Many subnational governments, regional entities, and sector agencies have been delegated responsibility for infrastructure planning promote local responsiveness, but responsibility for allocating funds often remains with a centralized finance agency (CFA). While constituencies may propose numerous projects, governments often have insufficient financial resources to implement the full suite of proposals. This report presents the IPF methodology and results of the pilot application to a select set of transport and water and sanitation projects in Panama. The report first gives background information on infrastructure prioritization in Panama, then follows with a description of the IPF in technical and implementation terms. Next, we present the results of the pilot and close with recommendations for implementing IPF to a wider set of projects. PublicationStrengthening Sustainable Water Supply Services through Domestic Private Sector Providers in Cambodia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-01-28) World BankWith the exception of Myanmar, Cambodia has the lowest access to piped water supply in the South East Asia region, which was estimated to be 21 percent in 2015. Less than one in ten rural households (7 percent) have access to piped water services on their premises, while for urban households, three out of four households enjoy these services (75 percent) (WHO and UNICEF, 2015). Against this backdrop, the Government of Cambodia in its National Strategic Development Plan 2014-2018 (Royal Government of Cambodia, 2013) prioritizes the acceleration of access to piped water services, in partnership with the domestic private sector. Private water operators are licensed and regulated by the Ministry of Industry and Handicraft (MIH). Scarce public domestic financial resources are solely channeled to state-owned utilities and enforcement of regulations is generally weak. With the exception of the French Development Agency (AFD), most development partners focus their grant and lending support on public utility investments. In 2012 the private sector is already estimated to provide 1.4 million Cambodians with piped water services, with the immediate potential for expansion of existing schemes covering another 2 million and further new schemes that could viably be developed for another 3 million Cambodians (Sy, Warner, & Jamieson, 2014) and ( (DFAT, 2014). Around 300 private sector utilities, around half of which are licensed by the Ministry of Industry and Handicraft (MIH), have a market share of almost 50 percent of those with access to piped services, mostly situated in rural towns and agglomerations of settlements, with 750 to over 3000 household connections. Driven by demand for higher services, the private sector in Cambodia will be an important driver for increasing access to piped water supply, especially in the rapidly urbanizing rural growth centers of Cambodia. PublicationMainstreaming Water Resources Management in Urban Projects: Taking an Integrated Urban Water Management Approach(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016) World Bank GroupThis note provides guidance for cities in developing countries for managing the urban water cycle in a sustainable manner by using an Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) approach. After a brief introduction to the concept of IUWM, this note profiles the different IUWM approaches applied in three types of cities: a water-scarce, fast-developing city (Windhoek, Namibia), an expanding city subject to climate extremes (Melbourne, Australia) and a dense flood-prone city (Rotterdam, the Netherlands). It also profiles an example of World Bank engagement under an IUWM approach in a fast-growing city in a middle-income country (Vitoria in Espírito Santo, Brazil). The final section showcases a potential methodology for applying an IUWM approach in a city, from the initial engagement and diagnostic phases towards the application of a full IUWM umbrella framework under which a program can be implemented.