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PublicationA Study of Road Safety Lead Agencies in Africa(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-02-22) Mitullah, Winnie; Small, Martin; Azzouzi, MustaphaThis study of road safety lead agencies (RSLAs) in Africa takes place at an important time when serious injuries on roads are at the centre of discussions on sustainable development. RSLAs in Africa are considered to be critical vehicles for responding to road safety challenges, although how well they do this remains largely unknown. In literature, their functionality, complexity and autonomy has widely been assessed. However, there is limited attempt to link the management capacity of RSLAs to the observed road safety outcomes such as serious injuries and fatality reduction or reduction in the cost of road traffic crashes. Consequently, there is limited evidence as to whether or not lead agencies in Africa are achieving the intended goals of improving road safety status. This study sought to better understand these difficulties and the potential steps to success for RSLAs in Africa. It was commissioned by the African Development Bank and the World Bank and focuses on sixteen African countries. It is part of a global study of road safety lead agencies being undertaken by the World Health Organisation. The study is structured into four sections. Section 2 describes the two-phase methodology–desk study and preparation of the research instruments, data collection and analysis. This is followed in Section 3 by a discussion of the concept of lead agency, which lays the ground for presentation of the study results regarding lead agency performance in Section 4. Section 5 identifies lessons from the study and makes recommendations to improve lead agency performance. PublicationAssessment of Farmer-Led Irrigation Development in Niger(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06-21) Soumaila, AmadouNiger is a large landlocked country whose northern two-thirds lies within the Sahara Desert with a population of about 21.5 million people. Most of the population is concentrated in areas around the Niger River in the southwestern corner of the country and along its long southern border with Nigeria. Niger’s economic activity is concentrated on traditional activities, primarily agriculture, livestock, forestry, and fishery but also informal trade and production. The country has experienced declining average rainfall, desertification, recurring droughts, and deforestation. Undernourishment is widespread. Agricultural risks, primarily droughts in Niger, have severe economic consequences with wide repercussions. Farmer-led irrigation (FLI) in the Niger context could be defined as irrigation privately owned and managed by farmers. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent and the environment of FLI development in Niger, the challenges and constraints, and the business opportunities to be piloted. PublicationDiagnosing Angola’s WASH Sector: An Urgent Call to Action(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-05-10) Lombana Cordoba, Camilo; Andres, Luis A.; Da Costa, Lucrecio A.M.; Fenwick, CrystalAngola’s human development potential is constrained by the state of its water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector. The Angola WASH sector diagnostic identifies key service-delivery problems in the WASH sector and their enabling environment through an institutional assessment and political economy analysis that takes into account the cross-sectoral links underpinning human development. Specifically, the diagnostic first explores inequalities in access to WASH services and their relationship to childhood health in Angola, using data from the most recent demographic health survey (DHS, 2015-16) and the joint monitoring program (JMP) of the United Nations Children’s Fund and World Health Organization. Next, the diagnostic identifies key institutional constraints and bottlenecks through a comprehensive governance and public expenditure review of Angola’s WASH sector. Finally, the report provides guidance on how to improve the effectiveness of the WASH sector in support of broader policy goals to achieve sustainability and meet the targets of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). The diagnostic answers the following questions, each of which probes the links between access to safe WASH services and human development and highlights opportunities to improve policy, investments, and practice: (1) what is the current level and quality of access to WASH services in Angola, and how does access vary temporally and spatially?; (2) what are the links and synergies between WASH and other sectors critical to human development in Angola?; (3) what constrains WASH service delivery; and (4) what solutions will have the greatest effect on overall human development? PublicationRoad Safety Data In Africa: A Proposed Minimum Set of Road Safety Indicators for Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-01-23) Segui Gomez, Maria; Addo-Ashong, Tawia; Raffo, Veronica Ines; Venter, PieterRoad safety in Africa remains a big challenge. Globally, Africa has the highest fatality rate of all the continents, despite having the lowest motorization rate and smallest road infrastructure network. Through the Global Plan for the Decade of Action (2011-2020), the African Road Safety Action Plan, the African Road Safety Charter, and the targets set out in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Africa has made strong commitments to improve road safety outcomes on the continent. However, documents assessing the magnitude of the problem show that there exists a need to address it by implementing effective and efficient interventions, which require determination, professional qualification, and personnel and economic resources. In order to make informed decisions on effective interventions to mitigate this challenge, a deeper analysis of the road safety-related environment in the region is required. This document outlines a process that began in 2017 to define a common set of indicators to be collected, analyzed, and monitored by African countries, as part of their efforts to improve road safety in Africa. PublicationLesotho Digital Economy Diagnostic(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-02) World BankLesotho is a landlocked country with a population of about 2.0 million people. Lesotho’s private sector makes limited use of digital technologies. In the private sector, digital technology can change the way economies of scale are achieved, particularly through e-commerce and digital payments. The digital economy may provide the better matching of buyers and sellers in a competitive marketplace. The digital economy offers potential for enhanced service delivery in the public sector, but the Lesotho government’s efforts in this field appear fragmented and slow moving. Improved digital infrastructure can only achieve the desired transformational impact if combined with a capable public sector, investments in digital skills and literacy, increased access to digital financial services, and ramped up support for digital start-ups and existing businesses. A holistic view to developing the digital economy is required. This report will provide a diagnostic and offer recommendations on the five foundations of the digital economy in Lesotho. The report will examine, in turn, challenges concerning the policy and legal environment, digital infrastructure, public digital platforms, private digital platforms, digital financial services, digital entrepreneurship, and digital skills. This report reviews how the digital divide affects the foundations of the digital economy and provides policy options for bridging the digital divide. PublicationNigeria Digital Economy Diagnostic Report(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12-01) World Bank GroupAs the biggest economy in Africa with one of the largest youth populations in the world, Nigeria is well-positioned to develop a strong digital economy. This would have a transformational impact on the country. In order to reap the benefits, Nigeria needs to focus on accelerating improvements in five fundamental pillars of a digital economy: digital infrastructure, digital platforms, digital financial services, digital entrepreneurship and digital skills. The Nigeria Digital Economy Diagnostic report identifies key challenges and opportunities of leveraging the digital economy for diversified and sustained growth. It provides an assessment of the state of Nigeria’s digital economy around the five foundational pillars. The report also offers specific, actionable recommendations to the government and private sector stakeholders to further Nigeria’s development of each pillar. The report was produced in the context of the Digital Economy (DE4A) initiative, an African Union initiative supported by the World Bank Group, which aims to digitally connect every person, business, and government in Africa by 2030. PublicationManaging Risks for a Safer Built Environment in Malawi: Building Regulatory Capacity Assessment(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) World Bank GroupIn a rapidly urbanising world, Malawi remains one of the least urbanised countries in Africa. Approximately 16.7 percent of Malawi's population live in urban areas. Nevertheless, the country is urbanising at a moderate rate of approximately 3.7–3.9 percent per year. If growth continues at this rate, by 2030, approximately 20 percent of the population will be city dwellers, reaching 30 percent in 2050. This urban growth has the potential to improve economic opportunities and living conditions across Malawi. This is particularly significant given that approximately 69 percent of the population are living under the international poverty line of 1.9 US Dollars/day in purchasing power parity terms. However, challenges are also associated with this shift and concentration of population. With urbanisation comes a substantial amount of new construction. In Malawi, much of this new construction has occurred in cities and towns with limited capacity to ensure the structures in which people live, work and gather are safely sited and built to withstand chronic stresses (i.e. fire and spontaneous collapse) and disaster shocks (i.e. earthquakes and floods). In Lilongwe, for example, estimates indicate that 76 percent of residents live in informal settlements. These settlements are generally characterised by a lack of access to publicservices, tenure insecurity and inadequate housing. Malawi is impacted by a wide range of hazards, particularly droughts, floods, landslides, wildfires and earthquakes. Malawi is also vulnerable to recurrent and chronic risks. Large building fires in recent years include the LL and Mchinji Markets and the Mulanje Bus Depot in 2016 and the Area 13 and Zomba Market in 2018. In many ways, Malawi is at a crossroads: the regulatory decisions made now will significantly impact the longterm safety, productivity and resilience of the built environment in rural and urban areas. With its low base and moderate rate of urbanisation, Malawi is wellpositioned to formulate plans to maximise the benefits and to manage the challenges of urban agglomeration. PublicationSummary Note on Technical Assistance Provided in Support of the Greater Harare Water and Sanitation Strategic Plan(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-01) World BankThe severe conditions in Zimbabwe, which reached a nadir in 2008 and 2009, led to a collapse of basic systems including the reliability and safety of water supply and sanitation services, leading to an outbreak of cholera with more than 4,000 deaths and over 90,000 people infected. The World Bank provided Technical Assistance (TA) to the City of Harare to improve water and sanitation services in the period October 2012 to June 2014 to the value of approximately 600,000 US dollars. This Summary Note summarizes the key elements of the work undertaken and makes a set of recommendations to the City of Harare, the adjacent local authorities of Chitungwiza, Epworth, Norton and Ruwa, and Government of Zimbabwe to inform a strategic plan to improve water and Sanitation services in the greater Harare area. This Summary Note also sets out the context at the commencement of the TA, summarizes the work undertaken in the TA and the outcomes from this work, and makes recommendations for the way forward. PublicationWhere Should the Next Dollar Be Best Spent?: Policy Advice Drawn from the World Bank Zimbabwe Water Sector Investment Analysis(Washington, DC, 2014-10) World BankThis policy paper records the outcome of a strategic analysis of investment requirements in the water sector in Zimbabwe as of December 2013. The work, entitled Zimbabwe water sector investment analysis, was undertaken in close collaboration with senior officials in Zimbabwe as an exercise in determining where World Bank investments may be most effective in the future, and to assist the government of Zimbabwe to develop its own investment strategies. The analysis was framed around two key questions: (1) what immediate investments are required to ensure that water in sufficient quantity and at adequate quality will be available to underpin recovery? This is in order to ensure that water availability would not constitute a constraint to future growth and development; and (2) where in the water sector should the next dollar be best spent? This paper summarizes the context of the water sector in Zimbabwe at the time of the study and reflects the key elements of policy advice derived from the analysis. It is important to record and recognize the key elements of policy advice provided by the World Bank through the water sector investment analysis. PublicationGrowth Poles Program : Political Economy of Social Capital(Washington, DC, 2014-04) World BankThe Government of Sierra Leone (GosL) and the World Bank (WB) have agreed upon the design and implementation of a growth poles program (GPP) in support of the agenda for prosperity (A4P), the GoSL's third poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSPIII). With support from the European Union competitive industries and innovation practice trust fund, the WB has been undertaking a series of scoping and diagnostic analyses on the GPP since early 2013, and to date this work has constituted the main part of the first phase of the approach (the initial diagnostic stage). This diagnostic work was completed in August 2013 and the diagnostic report confirmed that the growth pole approach can feasibly support and facilitate economic development in two geographical areas of the country. This analytical report attempts to provide a window into the undercurrents and the nuances that affect and shape the characteristics of host communities into which investment takes place. The report also highlights the various input considerations that need to be acknowledged (land, labor, community relations), the governance framework into which the future growth poles approach will fit - central, local, and community and finally concludes with a series of recommendations around key policy, institutional, cross linkages, and contextual challenges that the growth poles approach must consider as it attempts to underpin the government's growth by foreign direct investment agenda.