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PublicationA Blue Transformation for Pacific Maritime Transport: Overarching Regional Transport(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-06-29) World BankThis report has eight chapters. Following the introduction (Pacific Peoples and the Sea), the next six chapters each focus on a separate significant component of Pacific maritime transport, analyzing the major influences and challenges, and, where relevant, key areas for future attention. The topics are: international shipping, gateway ports, domestic maritime transport, four related sectors, cruise ship tourism, tuna fisheries, fossil fuel imports, and bulk shipping, natural disasters and climate resilience, and sector governance and institutions. The final chapter, transforming pacific maritime transport, ways forward, distils the report’s findings into the most significant and far-reaching opportunities to transform maritime transport in the Pacific. These are grouped into three broad themes, infrastructure, services, and governance and capacity building. Ways Forward comes at the end and, for readers unable to view the whole report, is a good place to begin. The rest of this executive summary explains why the Pacific is a special case for investment and provides a summary of the main chapters and findings. But first, it describes which Pacific Island countries contributed to the study. PublicationDigital Technology for Traceability in Vietnam’s Fruit and Vegetable Value Chains(Washington, DC, 2022-12) World BankThe purpose of this study was to assess the current state of existing traceability systems in Vietnam’s fruit and vegetable (F&V) value chains, examine pertinent policies and regulations, share international good practices and explore their potential applicability to Vietnam, and examine the current legal and institutional framework governing agri-food traceability in Vietnam and some major export markets (for example, the European Union [EU], Italy, China, and the Republic of Korea [Korea]). The study identified potential intervention areas and made recommendations to policy makers and food business operators (FBOs) in Vietnam regarding the implementation of digital traceability systems and the regulatory environmentthat facilitates their use. The interventions aim to contribute to lowering the incidence levels of specific hazards in perishable products in the F&V value chains, increasing FBOs’ compliance, enhancing consumer awareness of food safety, and strengthening the food safety regulatory system. Additionally, the interventions would contribute to re-establishing public confidence in the quality and safety of Vietnamese agri-food as well as its current food safety oversight regime. PublicationPublic-Private Partnership (PPP) Contracts in An Age of Disruption(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-09) World Bank GroupThe objective of this report is to help governments of emerging economies to better understand the increasing impact of disruptive technologies on PPP infrastructure projects. The report also seeks to provide guidance on how to manage existing PPP contracts and design future ones at a time when emerging technologies areproviding opportunities for innovation, and new business models can be essential for economic growth and private sector development in emerging markets. In addition, the report intends to encourage further debate among stakeholders involved in PPP projects about the scope and type of technological disruption they have encountered, as well as approaches to manage associated risks and to encourage innovation. PublicationCarbon Revenues From International Shipping: Enabling an Effective and Equitable Energy Transition - Summary for Policymakers(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-04-01) Dominioni, Goran; Englert, Dominik; Salgmann, Rico; Brown, JenniferThe International Maritime Organization (IMO) is currently considering developing market-based measures to meet the objectives of its Initial Strategy on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions from Ships (Initial IMO GHG Strategy). While market-based measures are to reduce GHG emissions from international shipping as a matter of priority, some types of market-based measures, e.g. carbon levies or a cap-and-trade scheme without free distribution of emissions allowances, can raise significant revenues—thereby enabling an additional set of actions. Strategically using these revenues also appears more favorable than applying exemptions to address important equity considerations. Hence, the study investigates the unique potential of revenue-raising market-based measures to enable an effective and equitable energy transition and explores three questions: What could carbon revenues from international shipping be used for, who could be the recipients of such revenues, and how can adequate management of carbon revenues from international shipping be imagined? The study considers seven main revenue use options, of which some revenue uses appear more aligned with guiding principles of the Initial IMO GHG Strategy and other key desirable features (e.g., ability to deliver greater climate and development outcomes) than others. The analysis also suggests that splitting carbon revenues between the shipping sector and the use outside the sector could be a viable way forward. As primary recipients of carbon revenues, governments appear to be most suitable given the often blurred links between companies and countries in international shipping. However, to maximize climate and development outcomes, a share of carbon revenues may also be channeled to the private sector, including the shipping industry. The report stresses that expertise and experience from existing climate finance funds and international development organizations offering trustee services could be leveraged to inform and operationalize the management of carbon revenues from international shipping and to minimize transaction costs. PublicationDigital and Telecom: Myanmar Infrastructure Monitoring(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-03-31) World BankMyanmar has experienced a series of total and partial internet shutdowns since the military coup in February 2021. These restrictions have varied in intensity across the country and over time, ranging from the complete shutdown of all wireless broadband services and nightly shutdowns of fixed line services between February and April 2021, followed by limited access to a whitelist of websites and services and intermittent subnational shutdowns starting in May 2021. The restrictions on internet access have had a profound impact on investments in the sector, subsequently affecting the growth of digital infrastructure and digitally enabled services in Myanmar. Internet restrictions have also had important implications on household welfare, firm operations, and growth of the digital economy in Myanmar. New regulations, market exit by private sector providers, and continued internet restrictions threaten to reverse the progress made over the last decade. Continued internet restrictions can lead to further restraint of online economic activity and closure of many young digital start-ups that rely on consistent, reliable, and widespread internet adoption to reach markets. PublicationTransport and Logistics: Myanmar Infrastructure Monitoring(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-03-31) World BankTransport and logistics services in Myanmar have been substantially hit by the impacts of the February 2021 coup and the surge in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Logistics companies have been affected by rising fuel prices, border closures, and a shortage of shipping containers. While the initial effects after the military coup on the transport sector were extremely severe, there have been signs of some recovery of transport services since May 2021. Public transport in Yangon experienced a significant reduction in passenger demand in early months after the coup, subsequently recovering some ground by December 2021. Higher fuel prices and currency liquidity shortages significantly increased the cost of inland transport services. Transportation and logistics services are expected to be severely impacted by continuing high fuel prices, mobility constrains, political instability, and evolution of the pandemic. The export and import via container are expected to recover gradually due to agricultural and garment industry-led demand. However, improvement of exports and imports in the medium term is uncertain given the complexity of trade relations with international trade partners. In addition to effects of the coup and political conflicts, risks related to the pandemic will also significantly impact logistics supply chains and mobility in the near to mid-term. PublicationEnergy Sector: MyanmarvInfrastructure Monitoring(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-03-31) World BankMyanmar’s energy sector has been severely affected by the dual shocks of the February 2021 coup and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Developments in the energy sector after the coup have undermined nascent energy sector reforms over the last few years, including reforms that led to improved service delivery, restructured electricity tariffs, and increased electricity access. Constraints in human resources resulting from the dismissal of over 4,400 staff in key entities and departments under the Ministry of Electricity and Energy (MoEE) has put power sector operation at risk. Public boycott of electricity payments and rising costs of electricity due to dollar-denominated independent power producers have adversely affected the financial viability of the power sector. The political instability in the aftermath of the coup has led to significant operational and financial burdens on the sector, affecting the sector financial viability and fiscal sustainability. Investor confidence has plummeted amid uncertainty and a worsening investment climate, jeopardizing the implementation of approved power projects, including renewable solar. While the global commodity rally continues, there are serious challenges ahead, including the need for skilled labor to ensure electricity reliability, maintain the security of power infrastructure, and increase electricity revenues. PublicationSouth Asia’s Digital Opportunity: Accelerating Growth, Transforming Lives(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-03-27) World BankThe report presents both the opportunities of and the bottlenecks for furthering the digital agenda. It emphasizes that the first step is to get the basics right. This includes enabling access to and adoption of high-quality affordable broadband, initiating a paradigm shift in building digital public platforms and accelerating digital financial services. Part of this includes integrating digital ID, digital payments, and data sharing platforms so they can become ‘digital stacks’ that allow service providers to build and innovate their own platforms and systems on top. Supporting digital businesses, fostering digital skills, and creating the necessary trust environment are also critical to the digital agenda. Further, a successful digital agenda at country levels would benefit from regional integration that entails cross-border connectivity, data infrastructure, and payment systems. PublicationA Study of Road Safety Lead Agencies in Africa(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-02-22) Mitullah, Winnie; Small, Martin; Azzouzi, MustaphaThis study of road safety lead agencies (RSLAs) in Africa takes place at an important time when serious injuries on roads are at the centre of discussions on sustainable development. RSLAs in Africa are considered to be critical vehicles for responding to road safety challenges, although how well they do this remains largely unknown. In literature, their functionality, complexity and autonomy has widely been assessed. However, there is limited attempt to link the management capacity of RSLAs to the observed road safety outcomes such as serious injuries and fatality reduction or reduction in the cost of road traffic crashes. Consequently, there is limited evidence as to whether or not lead agencies in Africa are achieving the intended goals of improving road safety status. This study sought to better understand these difficulties and the potential steps to success for RSLAs in Africa. It was commissioned by the African Development Bank and the World Bank and focuses on sixteen African countries. It is part of a global study of road safety lead agencies being undertaken by the World Health Organisation. The study is structured into four sections. Section 2 describes the two-phase methodology–desk study and preparation of the research instruments, data collection and analysis. This is followed in Section 3 by a discussion of the concept of lead agency, which lays the ground for presentation of the study results regarding lead agency performance in Section 4. Section 5 identifies lessons from the study and makes recommendations to improve lead agency performance. PublicationTransport Asset Management Plan Guideline for Climate Resilience and Road Safety (Phase I) for the Municipality of Ulaanbaatar(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-02-01) World BankThis is the first iteration of a Transport Asset Management Planning (TAMP) Guideline for Ulaanbaatar. This TAMP Guideline I guides the Municipality of Ulaanbaatar (MUB) to move away from its conventional reactive decision-making approach and adopt a systematic, evidence- and risk-based approach in maintaining its road assets. The reactive way of doing business, which postpones repair activities until major deterioration occurs, is no longer sustainable. It is too expensive, and it erodes the value of important and costly road assets. As the costs of operating and repairing roads continue to increase, it has become more difficult for the MUB to meet the demands of an aging and expanding infrastructure while dealing with public expectations to provide the same level of service. This TAMP Guideline can therefore serve as a medium- and long-term tactical guide for MUB to plan for repair and maintenance of its transport assets to provide good quality road network to UB’s citizens while optimizing the use of its scarce financial resources for maintenance and repairs. The TAMP incorporates two key risks that strain the performance and safety of UB’s road network: climate risks (particularly urban flooding) and road safety risks.