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PublicationFinancing India’s Urban Infrastructure Needs: Constraints to Commercial Financing and Prospects for Policy Action(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022) Athar, Sohaib; White, Roland; Goyal, HarshIndia is rapidly urbanizing, with about 600 million people expected to be living in cities by 2036. This will put additional pressure on the already stretched urban infrastructure and services in these cities. This report estimates that India will need $840 billion in investment into urban infrastructure over the next 15 years—or $55 billion per year on average—if it is to effectively meet the needs of this fast-growing population. Despite a recent increase in public sector financing, there is still a large shortfall of resources relative to these needs. Financing from private and commercial sources, such as through municipal debt and public-private partnerships, can play a substantial role in addressing this shortfall. However, the use of such financing is very limited at present even in financially strong cities. This report analyses the demand- and supply-side constraints to raising private financing for urban infrastructure and provides policy actions to address them. It first presents latest estimates of future infrastructure investment needs for Indian cities and reviews recent trends in municipal finance and private commercial financing to meet these needs, focusing on municipal debt (such as loans and municipal bonds) and public-private partnerships. It then assesses the key constraints that undermine the mobilization of private finance for urban infrastructure. Finally, it provides proposals for policy action on how these constraints can be addressed at the demand and supply sides and shows how the Government of India can play an important role in removing various market frictions faced by cities. It proposes sequenced measures that can be taken at the city, state, and federal levels to create an environment in which private commercial finance becomes a much bigger part of the solution to India’s urban investment challenge. PublicationVulnerability to Human Trafficking in Nepal from Enhanced Regional Connectivity(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12) World BankTrafficking in persons is a serious crime and a grave violation of human rights. It is a form of modern-day slavery that involves the recruitment, harboring, or transportation of people into an exploitative situation by means of violence, deception, or coercion for the purpose of exploitation. In Nepal, the most widespread forms of human trafficking are for forced labor, domestic servitude, prostitution and sexual exploitation, and organ extraction. The country’s open borders with India, and to some extent China, with limited border surveillance, have enabled transnational crimes such as human trafficking. The World Bank has extended technical and financial assistance to large-scale infrastructure projects in Nepal, some for improved transport connectivity and trade facilitation both within the country and within the region. The nature of these investments must be looked at through the lens of enhancing long-term economic growth and prosperity, which is jeopardized by human trafficking. As a result, this study was conducted to draw links between the various aspects of development projects, in particular, improved transport connectivity and migration, that either contribute, mitigate, facilitate, or prevent trafficking in men, women, and children. PublicationThe Potential of Zero-Carbon Bunker Fuels in Developing Countries(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-15) Englert, Dominik; Losos, Andrew; Raucci, Carlo; Smith, TristanTo meet the climate targets set forth in the International Maritime Organization’s Initial GHG Strategy, the maritime transport sector needs to abandon the use of fossil-based bunker fuels and turn toward zero-carbon alternatives which emit zero or at most very low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout their lifecycles. This report, “The Potential of Zero-Carbon Bunker Fuels in Developing Countries”, examines a range of zero-carbon bunker fuel options that are considered to be major contributors to shipping’s decarbonized future: biofuels, hydrogen and ammonia, and synthetic carbon-based fuels. The comparison shows that green ammonia and green hydrogen strike the most advantageous balance of favorable features due to their lifecycle GHG emissions, broader environmental factors, scalability, economics, and technical and safety implications. Furthermore, the report finds that many countries, including developing countries, are very well positioned to become future suppliers of zero-carbon bunker fuels—namely ammonia and hydrogen. By embracing their potential, these countries would be able to tap into an estimated $1+ trillion future fuel market while modernizing their own domestic energy and industrial infrastructure. However, strategic policy interventions are needed to unlock these potentials. PublicationReforming the Indian Ports Sector(Washington, DC, 2013-06) World BankMaritime transport carries more than nine-tenths of tonnage of world international trade. The international shipping industry, competitive and dominated by private companies, has delivered to trading nations increasing capacity, generally improving service levels, and declining unit shipping costs. To access and extract the maximum benefit from this vital transport resource each nation depends on the performance of its ports sector; not only on the capacity, quality and price of port services but also their connectivity to hinterlands and to the industrial and consumer markets they serve. Ports in India, as in many countries, face continued pressure to handle higher throughput, adapt to larger and more specialized vessels, improve productivity, and adopt new technology and information systems that can meet the increasingly demanding service standards expected by shippers, logistics companies and shipping operators. As in all economic sectors, the success of ports depends not only on investment in its infrastructure but on supportive policy and regulatory structures, and on the effectiveness of the institutions that deliver services to customers. This Report contains an analysis of the current status of India s ports sector, identifies potential constraints on the ability of ports to meet India s future development needs, and sets out a recommended policy framework to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the sector. PublicationInternational Experience in Bus Rapid Transit Implementation : Synthesis of Lessons Learned from Lagos, Johannesburg, Jakarta, Delhi, and Ahmedabad(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-01) Kumar, Ajay; Zimmerman, Samuel; Agarwal, O.P.It is in this context that this study has been undertaken to document BRT case studies in terms of the political setting, institutions/governance, public involvement and communications, service/operations/management and planning and their relationship to investment performance. The study has been undertaken in recognition of the fact that successful implementation and operation of BRT systems often reflects non-physical actors like leadership, communications, organizational structure, service planning and operating practices rather than the design of transitways, stations, terminals and vehicles. This paper does not seek to compare BRT with other forms of public transport but only seeks to evaluate a sample of BRT systems in terms of the softer issues that have contributed making a BRT system successful or not so successful. PublicationAssessment of the Regulatory Philosophy of Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-06-22) Forsyth, Peter; Niemeier, Hans-MartinThe report has a high quality and discusses the main issues of regulation. The overall aim is that it reflects best practice regulation. Furthermore, AERA is an independent regulator accountable to democratic bodies. Also in that respect the regulatory institutions in India are well designed and superior to the majority of European countries which have dependent regulators open for regulatory capture. PublicationRegulation of the Indian Port Sector(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-05) van Krimpen, ChristiaanThis report sets out various options for regulatory reform of the Indian port sector. The terms of reference from The World Bank require the Author making recommendations to the Ministry of Finance (Department of Economic Affairs) with respect to alternative institutional and legal options for regulation of the port sector in India as well as analysing key considerations in the regulation of this sector and the way they are being addressed in the Indian Ports (Consolidated) Act, 2010, which has been drafted recently. This report is solution-oriented and focuses on day-to-day problems of Indian port management. The problems of the Indian ports (including those of tariff regulation by TAMP) are well known, thoroughly analysed, described in detail and widely discussed in the port sector. A final solution for the restructuring of the sector has not yet been found. This report is written with a view to outlining various alternatives which may help the competent authorities to make final decisions on a new/revised port sector regulatory framework. PublicationIndia : Municipal Financing Requirements - Water, Sewerage, and Solid Waste(Washington, DC, 2010-06) World BankThis report presents the main results from cost models that were developed as an input to the High Powered Expert Committee on Urban Development in order to estimate the investment, operations, and maintenance requirements for urban water, sanitation and municipal solid waste in India. The cost models are designed as tools that allow linking the various building blocks of the cost estimation to one another, and tests the impact of the main model assumptions on the overall investment requirements. A cross-country comparison is also conducted to benchmark the key service standards adopted in the models against international experience. The report addresses the challenge of India's fast growing urban population and the high backlog in urban service delivery. Infrastructure deficits in urban areas are large and growing. Universal water access for urban population in India has yet to be realized. The report uses the cost models to discuss India's municipal financing needs, urban water supply services, urban sewerage services, municipal solid waste, and investment needs. PublicationReform of Gujranwala Water and Sanitation Agency : Design of Institutional Framework and Corporate Structure(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-03-31) Ali Shah, Syed MansoorWASA-G is an agency established by the Authority under the Punjab Development of Cities Act, 1976 ('PDCA') to 'carry out functions of the authority in relation to development, operation, and maintenance of water supply, sewerage and drainage system within the boundaries of Gujranwala Development Authority (GDA) and to carry out all functions ancillary hereto. Authority means the development authority i.e, GDA created under PDCA. One of the functions of the authority is to establish an agency or agencies and entrust to it such powers and functions as it may deem fit with the approval of the Government. The functions of water supply, sewerage and drainage have been 'entrusted' to WASA-G, an agency of the authority under the PDCA. There is no further detail in PDCA regarding the legal structure of the agency. WASA-G is, therefore, no more than a wing or department of the authority entrusted with a specific function of water supply, sewerage and drainage and matters ancillary thereto and does not enjoy an autonomous legal status. The authority is therefore the service provider (through WASA-G) and the regulator. Further, the authority can give direction to government agencies to execute the scheme, if falling within the jurisdiction of the government agency. PublicationRadio Spectrum Management Development in India : A Framework for Strengthening Radio Spectrum Management and Policies(Washington, DC, 2006-06) World BankThis report provides a detailed review of the current spectrum management regime in India; provides a perspective on best practice as may be applied in India and in addition provides a consideration of measures which could be taken to enhance spectrum management activities in India. The radio spectrum in India is a national resource, owned and managed by the Government. The authority for day-to-day spectrum management activities is vested Wireless Planning and Coordination (WPC) in New Delhi. Formal interfaces have been established with key spectrum user organizations, whose spectrum management staff may be found in other parts of India, remote from the capital city. The spectrum management regime has to date been strongly biased towards fulfilling the needs of the State and serving radio communications requirements funded by public sources. However, during the last 5 to 8 years a demanding private sector has made significant investments in the roll-out of new services and systems. The private sector (and indeed several segments of the public sector) is not entirely satisfied with the level of service provided by the spectrum management organization. This report performs the following functions: 1) it provides a detailed review of the current spectrum management regime in India; 2) it provides a commentary on best practice as may be applied in India in connection with each of the above areas; and 3) it provides a consideration of measures which could be taken to enhance spectrum management activities in India.