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PublicationInfrastructure Tokenization: Does Blockchain Have a Role in the Financing of Infrastructure?(World Bank, Washington DC, 2023-03-22) World Bank GroupThe purpose of this report is to assess whether digitizing the equity or debt financing used for infrastructure projects using blockchain, that is, tokenized infrastructure, provides enough benefits to justify the use of this technology. The information presented here aims to inform the World Bank whether it should explore the possibility of tokenizing one of its infrastructure projects. The conclusions are based on interviews with tokenization start-ups, experts, and the review of current and planned regulatory frameworks in selected jurisdictions and use cases/pilots to date. PublicationPublic-Private Partnership (PPP) Contracts in An Age of Disruption(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-09) World Bank GroupThe objective of this report is to help governments of emerging economies to better understand the increasing impact of disruptive technologies on PPP infrastructure projects. The report also seeks to provide guidance on how to manage existing PPP contracts and design future ones at a time when emerging technologies areproviding opportunities for innovation, and new business models can be essential for economic growth and private sector development in emerging markets. In addition, the report intends to encourage further debate among stakeholders involved in PPP projects about the scope and type of technological disruption they have encountered, as well as approaches to manage associated risks and to encourage innovation. PublicationPalestinian Digital Economy Assessment(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12-22) World Bank GroupThe world of tomorrow will be driven by digital transformation across sectors and industries, and the global coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is accelerating this process. Digital technology is already playing an important role in the West Bank and Gaza (WB and G), and development of the digital economy is among the national priorities. This report aims to assess the state of digital economy development in WB and G, identify opportunities for further growth, and inform reforms and donor support programs in WB and G. The report provides a comprehensive overview of digital economy development in WB and G across the five foundational pillars - digital infrastructure, digital platforms, digital financial services, digital businesses, and digital skills. The report is based on several fact-finding missions, structured interviews, surveys, focus group discussions, and analysis of secondary data. The findings show that despite recent progress, the potential of the digital economy in WB and G is not fully exploited. Accelerating digital transformation and building a well-connected Palestinian economy will entail strengthening both analog and non-analog foundations. Three key areas that require the immediate attention of Palestinian policy makers are: (1) improving the digital infrastructure, (2) updating the legal and regulatory framework, and (3) ensuring institutional coordination and resource mobilization. PublicationBurundi Digital Economy Assessment(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-12-21) World Bank GroupCoronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted the need for accelerating digital adoption in Burundi. Burundi’s current sectoral strategies acknowledge the importance of investing in digital technology. However, these lack an overarching approach with an actionable roadmap and clear resources behind it. Burundi’s mobile network coverage and mobile broadband uptake continues to be characterized by a stark urban-rural divide. Digital platforms are paramount in connecting people, businesses, and the government - enabling both transactions and the exchange of information, goods, and services in more efficient and convenient ways. At present Burundi’s digital entrepreneurship sector remains embryonic, hampered by barriers such as limited ecosystem support and weak access to financing. Whether through the provision of public services closer to its citizens with digital platforms, or through increased financial inclusion enabled by digital financial services and dynamic digital ecosystems, Burundi stands to gain from a continued investment in the foundations of its digital economy. Chapter one gives introduction. Chapter two reviews cross-cutting factors that affect the strategic, institutional, and regulatory environment for the digital agenda in Burundi. The report proceeds to explore the five foundational pillars of the digital economy, in more depth. Chapter three looks at the access, quality, and usage of digital infrastructure, as well as the dynamics of the connectivity market, including what it will take to get more Burundians online. Chapter four discusses the current state of digital skills attainment and coverage. Chapter five analyzes the current application and scope for expanding the use of digital platforms - both in the public and private sector. Chapter six examines the state and uptake of digital financial services (DFS) among individuals, businesses and by government. Finally, chapter seven assesses the state of digital entrepreneurship and the culture of innovation in Burundi. PublicationTogo Digital Economy Diagnostic Report(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-26) World Bank GroupRapid digital transformation has been re-shaping the global economy, changing fundamental patterns of socioeconomic activities and accelerating further in the wake of the global Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. In this context, relying on the Digital Economy for Africa (DE4A) methodology, the report conducts a timely diagnostic of the state of digital economy in Togo. Togo is bordered by Ghana, Benin, and Burkina Faso, and has a coastline that runs along the Gulf of Guinea. The government of Togo (GoT) is cognizant of the importance of the transformation towards a digital economy. As the government of Togo launches into the development of a new strategy for digital transformation “Togo Digital 2025” the current diagnostic would provide useful information to use as a basis for such strategic document. This report aims to highlight opportunities to further develop Togo’s digital economy with a special focus on policies that can bridge the digital divide and help Togo achieve the DE4A targets. This report aims to provide practical and actionable recommendations that inform decision makers on priority areas for development. PublicationBenchmarking Infrastructure Development 2020: Assessing Regulatory Quality to Prepare, Procure, and Manage PPPs and Traditional Public Investment in Infrastructure Projects(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-10-07) World Bank GroupAppropriate and effective regulatory frameworks remain crucial for ensuring that investments in infrastructure are done strategically and efficiently. Benchmarking infrastructure development 2020 assesses the regulatory quality for preparation, procurement, and management of large infrastructure projects through both public-private partnerships (PPPs) and traditional public investments (TPIs). The report highlights the key findings resulting from the data and is organized around the infrastructure project cycle phases for both the PPP and the pilot TPI assessment. Both the PPP and TPI assessment cover the core phases of the infrastructure project cycle: preparation, procurement, and contract management. For PPPs, management of unsolicited proposals (USPs) is also assessed. For TPI, the regulatory framework to manage infrastructure assets after construction is also assessed. Disclosure of information for PPPs and procurement practices for innovation for TPIs are also discussed in the report as cross-cutting areas of interest. With reference to a highway transport project as a guiding example to ensure cross-comparability, the report presents the regulatory landscape at the end of June 2018 to develop infrastructure projects. PublicationMorocco Infrastructure Review(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-05) World Bank GroupOver the last twenty years, Morocco has invested massively in infrastructure. At the macroeconomic level, total investment of between 25 percent and 38 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) occurred between 2001 and 2017, one of the highest rates of investment globally. Much of this investment has gone into infrastructure, and more than half of it was undertaken by the public sector (treasury, public enterprises and local authorities). Morocco is also among countries receiving the most official development assistance relative to GDP, half of which is invested in infrastructure. The investments have created more reliable supply chains, improved access to markets and basic services, and increased productivity. Following this executive summary, chapter one reviews the quantity and quality of infrastructure services in Morocco and the notable achievements that the country has made in this regard; chapter two discusses Morocco’s infrastructure challenges; chapter three describes Morocco’s infrastructure investment needs and macroeconomic constraints; and, chapter four discusses proposed cross-cutting reforms. Appendix A provides key indicators for each infrastructure sector, Appendix B provides sector specific recommendations and lists selected projects in the infrastructure pipeline, and Appendix C explains the methodology used to derive the infrastructure investment estimates. PublicationNigeria Digital Economy Diagnostic Report(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12-01) World Bank GroupAs the biggest economy in Africa with one of the largest youth populations in the world, Nigeria is well-positioned to develop a strong digital economy. This would have a transformational impact on the country. In order to reap the benefits, Nigeria needs to focus on accelerating improvements in five fundamental pillars of a digital economy: digital infrastructure, digital platforms, digital financial services, digital entrepreneurship and digital skills. The Nigeria Digital Economy Diagnostic report identifies key challenges and opportunities of leveraging the digital economy for diversified and sustained growth. It provides an assessment of the state of Nigeria’s digital economy around the five foundational pillars. The report also offers specific, actionable recommendations to the government and private sector stakeholders to further Nigeria’s development of each pillar. The report was produced in the context of the Digital Economy (DE4A) initiative, an African Union initiative supported by the World Bank Group, which aims to digitally connect every person, business, and government in Africa by 2030. PublicationSouth Africa Digital Economy Diagnostic(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12-01) World Bank GroupSouth Africa is one of the digital economy leaders on the African continent, but lags developed countries. In this context, the digital economy for Africa targets appear within reach for South Africa, although efforts need to be maintained. Launched in 2018 through a collaboration between the African Union (AU) and the World Bank, the digital economy for Africa initiative aims to ensure that every individual, business, and government in Africa will be digitally enabled by 2030. South Africa can also play a leading role for regional digital development, particularly within the context of the recently signed continental free trade area (CFTA) agreement, as well closer to home in the Southern Africa development community (SADC) and common market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) context, following on the East Africa single digital market as an example. South Africa can assist by leading the agenda to harmonize customs, disseminating best practices to other countries around issues such as data regulation, improvement in the ecommerce environment, promotion of Africa wide payment systems, and the provision of an even stronger regional hub for tech entrepreneurs. In this context, the South African government is aiming to pass several reforms across core elements of the digital economy, recognizing the need for new policy directions and preparing for the fourth industrial revolution (4iR). While South Africa’s wealthy households have broad access to quality and relatively affordable internet, people earning less than South African rand (ZAR) 7000 a month are largely unconnected. This report reviews how the digital divide affects the foundations of the digital economy and provides policy options for bridging the divide. This report will provide a diagnostic and offer recommendations on the five foundations of the digital economy in South Africa. The report will examine challenges concerning digital infrastructure, public digital government platforms, digital financial services, digital entrepreneurship, and digital skills. PublicationTunisia Infrastructure Diagnostic(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-12) World Bank GroupTunisia’s has made significant investments in infrastructure, which has contributed to economic growth. The investments have enabled reasonably good access to basic infrastructure services. While access rates are high, the relative quality of Tunisia’s infrastructure has deteriorated significantly over the last ten years. State-owned enterprises (SOEs), which dominate the infrastructure sector, receive considerable subsidies and incur notable financial losses. Overall, there is a heavy reliance on external borrowing to fund infrastructure investment, which creates contingent liabilities, and enhances foreign exchange and macro-economic risk. Chapter one provides an overview of Tunisia’s infrastructure performance; chapter two discusses each sub-sector in more detail in terms of achievements and challenges; chapter three looks at historical trends in spending followed by a scenario analysis of investment needs with anecdotal examples, and discusses the present macro-economic and fiscal constraints; and chapter four presents possible action items for further discussion with the Tunisian government.