Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Palestinian Digital Economy Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12-22) World Bank Group
    The world of tomorrow will be driven by digital transformation across sectors and industries, and the global coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is accelerating this process. Digital technology is already playing an important role in the West Bank and Gaza (WB and G), and development of the digital economy is among the national priorities. This report aims to assess the state of digital economy development in WB and G, identify opportunities for further growth, and inform reforms and donor support programs in WB and G. The report provides a comprehensive overview of digital economy development in WB and G across the five foundational pillars - digital infrastructure, digital platforms, digital financial services, digital businesses, and digital skills. The report is based on several fact-finding missions, structured interviews, surveys, focus group discussions, and analysis of secondary data. The findings show that despite recent progress, the potential of the digital economy in WB and G is not fully exploited. Accelerating digital transformation and building a well-connected Palestinian economy will entail strengthening both analog and non-analog foundations. Three key areas that require the immediate attention of Palestinian policy makers are: (1) improving the digital infrastructure, (2) updating the legal and regulatory framework, and (3) ensuring institutional coordination and resource mobilization.
  • Publication
    Reforming and Rebuilding Lebanon's Port Sector: Lessons from Global Best Practices
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-12) World Bank
    On August 4, 2020, a massive explosion in the Port of Beirut (PoB) devastated the city, killing at least 200 people, wounding thousands, and displacing around 300,000. A Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA), prepared by the World Bank in cooperation with the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU), estimated damage to the port at about 350 million dollars. This Note was prepared by the World Bank to provide guidance to policy makers in Lebanon on the crucial additional requirements to be undertaken in the rebuilding of the PoB in terms of both improving its resilience and addressing the underlying governance concerns that are broadly acknowledged to have contributed to the tragedy. The Note summarizes global best practices in port management and border management reforms. The PoB is the main gateway for the external trade of Lebanon, but it has failed in the key role as an enabler of economic development in the country. Despite the growth in volumes and revenues in the port over the last 10-15 years, the PoB has evidently failed to guarantee safe and efficient operations, and to undertake the necessary long-term planning for the benefit of the port and the country. More importantly it has underperformed in its key role as an enabler of economic development at a national level and has made a limited contribution to fostering socio-economic development more broadly. These failures are a direct result of the current governance framework of the PoB. Lebanon adheres to a port management system that arguably reflects the complex political-economic realities, and which as a result run counter to many recognized good practices. The governance of the sector is a patchwork of ad-hoc institutions, structures, laws and regulations that preclude the development of a coherent integrated strategy. The current framework inhibits efficiency as several key government agencies for transport, trade, and border management have overlapping mandates, divergent strategies, often operate under outdated processes and regulations and do not coordinate among themselves. Since 1990, the PoB has been managed by a temporary administrative committee, established in a legal vacuum. This has resulted in serious governance, transparency, and accountability issues. The Lebanese Customs is not structured to perform its mission properly. Its two parallel institutions, the Higher Council for Customs and the Customs Directorate have proven to be inefficient and subject to political exploitation and power struggles. The tragic explosion in PoB clearly illustrates the evident shortcomings of the current institutional set-up as well as the risks emanating from the no-reform scenario.
  • Publication
    Business Regulation in South Asia and the Belt and Road Initiative
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-11-24) World Bank
    This study provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of the business environment in six South Asian countries, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, to examine whether business regulatory requirements in these countries hinder them from fully benefiting from BRI project spillovers. The analysis is based on available secondary data sources and responses to a structured questionnaire sent to selected private sector participants in each of these countries, eliciting information on the law, regulation, and practice in a wide range of thematic areas influencing the overall business and regulatory environment. Survey respondents identified nine key themes as the most challenging for the private sector, including from the perspective of potential benefits from BRI-induced opportunities. The thematic areas are: (a) licensing and inspection requirements; (b) regulations and practices governing foreign investment; (c) access to resources such as land, credit, and electricity; (d) regulatory restrictions on the operation of foreign firms, such as local content requirements and currency repatriation; (e) regulatory governance and corruption and state capture; (f) predictability and quality of the regulatory framework, especially corporate taxation; (g) government procurement laws and practice; (h) effective dispute settlement and grievance mechanisms; and (i) trade and customs regulations. The identified thematic areas promote connectivity and regional integration and thus are particularly relevant from the BRI perspective. Improvements along different dimensions of these thematic areas will likely enable countries in the region to gain from BRI-induced opportunities.
  • Publication
    Nepal Infrastructure Sector Assessment
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-02-28) World Bank
    Despite several severe shocks in the past, conflict, unstable governments, earthquakes, and trade disruptions, Nepal has made strong progress in reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity. With the decade-long peace and constitutional process concluded, the Government of Nepal is keen to accelerate economic growth and become a middle-income country by 2030. Between 1996 and 2011, the proportion of households living in extreme poverty fell from 46 to 15 percent. Nepal's macroeconomic fundamentals have remained sound. This report takes place as Nepal transitions to a federal structure. This poses a unique and unprecedented opportunity to establish clarity of functions, expenditures, and revenue assignments, as well as changing jurisdictions across various levels of governments and agencies, including as they interface with the private sector. The new government is in place and emphasizing the need for stronger cooperation between the public and private sectors. Against this background, this report assesses the energy (electricity generation, transmission, and distribution), transport (roads, airports, and urban transport), and urban (water supply, sanitation, and solid waste management) infrastructure sectors. The report recommends interventions that combine short-term and longer-term structural and policy changes with tailored project implementation approaches. Completing projects will help stress test the framework and system and identify potential bottlenecks that can be corrected. Such a learning-by-doing approach will further help prioritize the implementation of the initiatives proposed in this report and target capacity development initiatives in the areas of greatest need.
  • Publication
    Sri Lanka PPP Diagnostic Note: Accelerating Infrastructure Investment through PPPs
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-08-31) World Bank Group
    Fiscal constraints and limited budget resources will require the Government of Sri Lanka to explore and consider alternative financing options to address the country’s infrastructure needs. One option to address these constraints is to mobilize private sector financing through the use of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). However, it is important to note that PPPs have direct and indirect fiscal and financial implications which need to be assessed on a case by case basis and fully understood by participating agencies and policy makers.
  • Publication
    Linking Up: Public-Private Partnerships in Power Transmission in Africa
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06-06) World Bank Group
    The 'Linking up: Public-Private Partnerships in Power Transmission in Africa' report examines private sector-led investments in transmission globally and how this approach is applicable in sub-Saharan Africa. The private sector has invested over US$25 billion in the generation sector in Africa, and across other regions, has also participated successfully in transmission networks in many countries in Latin America and Asia. In these regions, private sector participation has reduced project costs and expanded coverage. The report draws lessons from case studies and highlights what regulations and other factors are needed to attract private sector interest in transmission projects.
  • Publication
    Assessment of the Regulatory Philosophy of Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-06-22) Forsyth, Peter; Niemeier, Hans-Martin
    The report has a high quality and discusses the main issues of regulation. The overall aim is that it reflects best practice regulation. Furthermore, AERA is an independent regulator accountable to democratic bodies. Also in that respect the regulatory institutions in India are well designed and superior to the majority of European countries which have dependent regulators open for regulatory capture.
  • Publication
    Regulation of the Indian Port Sector
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-05) van Krimpen, Christiaan
    This report sets out various options for regulatory reform of the Indian port sector. The terms of reference from The World Bank require the Author making recommendations to the Ministry of Finance (Department of Economic Affairs) with respect to alternative institutional and legal options for regulation of the port sector in India as well as analysing key considerations in the regulation of this sector and the way they are being addressed in the Indian Ports (Consolidated) Act, 2010, which has been drafted recently. This report is solution-oriented and focuses on day-to-day problems of Indian port management. The problems of the Indian ports (including those of tariff regulation by TAMP) are well known, thoroughly analysed, described in detail and widely discussed in the port sector. A final solution for the restructuring of the sector has not yet been found. This report is written with a view to outlining various alternatives which may help the competent authorities to make final decisions on a new/revised port sector regulatory framework.
  • Publication
    Peru - Recent Economic Development in Infrastructure : Volume 2. Investing in Infrastructure as an Engine for Growth - Spending More, Faster, and Spending Better
    (Washington, DC, 2010-12) World Bank
    This report provided the Government of Peru with a comprehensive strategic assessment of three key infrastructure sectors: water/sanitation, transport and electricity, and to propose selected recommendations on how the Government could improve the performance of these sectors. Peru's public expenditure framework shows some rigidities, a number of which were introduced when fiscal resources were scarce or, more recently, because of concerns about a possible risk of inflation. The implementation of the stimulus package has required a laborious transition to remove bottlenecks to faster public spending, sometimes at the risk of affecting the mechanisms that help ensure the quality of public expenditures. The Peruvian authorities have been able to accelerate public investments in infrastructure but little thinking has been dedicated to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of such investments. The report concludes that Peru should focus on: prioritizing infrastructure investments through improved planning, promoting efficiency in infrastructure delivery, enhancing sub-national governments' capacity with respect to infrastructure, and leveraging the participation of the private sector.
  • Publication
    Peru - Recent Economic Development in Infrastructure : Volume1. Investing in Infrastructure as an Engine for Growth - Spending More, Faster and Spending Better
    (Washington, DC, 2010-12) World Bank
    This report provided the Government of Peru with a comprehensive strategic assessment of three key infrastructure sectors: water/sanitation, transport and electricity, and to propose selected recommendations on how the Government could improve the performance of these sectors. Peru's public expenditure framework shows some rigidities, a number of which were introduced when fiscal resources were scarce or, more recently, because of concerns about a possible risk of inflation. The implementation of the stimulus package has required a laborious transition to remove bottlenecks to faster public spending, sometimes at the risk of affecting the mechanisms that help ensure the quality of public expenditures. The Peruvian authorities have been able to accelerate public investments in infrastructure but little thinking has been dedicated to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of such investments. The report concludes that Peru should focus on: prioritizing infrastructure investments through improved planning, promoting efficiency in infrastructure delivery, enhancing sub-national governments' capacity with respect to infrastructure, and leveraging the participation of the private sector.