Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Integrating Resilience into Municipal Infrastructure Delivery in Kenya: Guidance Note for Municipal and County Engineer and Planners - Urban Resilient Infrastructure Guideline
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World Bank
    This Resilient Urban Infrastructure Guidelines forms one of a suite of reports developed by AECOM for the World Bank Group under the ‘Enhancement of Resilient Urban Planning and Infrastructure Investments in Urban Areas in Kenya’ assignment and constitutes Deliverable 2. This guidance note provides simple guidance for increasing the resilience of municipal infrastructure projects, and of communities, to physical risks, notably impacts of climate changes. This will increase the sustainability of investments under Second Kenya Urban Support Program (KUSP2), enabling them to perform their required function for their proposed design life, in a changing climate. It follows, roughly chronologically, the project development and design process. For the purposes of this note, resilient urban infrastructure is defined as infrastructure that is designed to deliver essential services now and in the future. It is prepared for and can withstand, adapt and recover positively from the physical (and climatic) shocks and stresses it may face over its lifetime. This is both with regards to the assets themselves, as well as the wider system that these assets are part of, which could include: the natural environment, the urban system, the operators, and the communities that interact with them.
  • Publication
    Enhancement of Resilient Urban Planning and Infrastructure Investments in Urban Areas in Kenya - Guidance Note on Mainstreaming Resilience into Urban Planning
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World Bank
    This ‘Guidance Note on Mainstreaming Resilience into Urban Planning’ forms one of a suite of reports developed by AECOM for the World Bank Group under the ‘Enhancement of Resilient Urban Planning and Infrastructure Investments in Urban Areas in Kenya’ assignment and constitutes Deliverable 7. Aimed at municipal-level planners in Kenya, this guidance note includes activities, considerations, and examples of good practice from within Kenya and other contexts to support municipal governments with mainstreaming resilience within the urban planning system. While the primary audience is municipal-level urban planners, this guidance note is likely to be helpful and relevant to other planning system stakeholders, including developers, local politicians, government ministries, departments and agencies, community leaders, other built environmental professionals, and the general public. Throughout, the Guidance Note focusses on mainstreaming resilience. In other words, this document is not, and should not be used as, a general ‘how-to’ guide for urban planning. While some advice is provided within it that may be more applicable beyond the topic of resilience and/or comprises basic good practice in urban planning, that text is nevertheless included as a means to build resilience as a primary outcome.
  • Publication
    Climate Resilient Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa Compendium Volume: A Focus on Infrastructure Project Design in Key Sectors
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World Bank
    This Compendium Volume presents a series of guidance notes and more detailed complementary technical notes that offer practical insights in support of enhancing the climate resilience of infrastructure investment projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This first introductory chapter starts with an overview of the investment conditions and climatic context in the region, followed by a description of the scope of this Compendium Volume and individual notes, target audiences, and a roadmap for users of the contents covered in this Volume.
  • Publication
    Building Regulations in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Status Review of the Building Regulatory Environment
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-06-20) World Bank; Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
    Buildings should provide safe, comfortable, and healthy environments for people to live and work. They are an essential component of societies and economies, housing critical infrastructure necessary to keep governments and businesses in operation. At the same time, buildings are the first line of defense against natural hazards and climate impacts for the general population. The scope of this report is limited to regulatory frameworks in Sub-Saharan Africa countries, with a focus on buildings rather than on specialized construction types such as infrastructure for water, energy, transport, or communications. The report focuses on the technical aspects of the regulatory frameworks: market and financial solutions fall beyond its scope. Chapter 1 of the report describes the components, concepts, and desired outcomes of building regulatory frameworks. Chapter 2 explains the evolution of the building regulation environment in Sub-Saharan Africa and the region-specific hazards and risks that the regulatory environment must respond to. Chapter 3 presents data on the building regulatory environment for each country in the region. It covers all aspects of the building regulatory cycle: from the legally adopted building regulations that exist, to what they cover, to the implementation of regulations through compliance and enforcement mechanisms. Chapter 4 offers guidance on how to improve and update building regulatory frameworks. Chapter 5 contains region-specific conclusions and recommendations for strengthening building regulatory frameworks because of the analyses carried out in Chapters 3 and 4. Additionally, Appendix A summarizes key data for each country.
  • Publication
    Argentina: Valuing Water
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08-17) World Bank
    This report assesses water security in Argentina, using a conceptual framework developed by the World Bank. The effects of the pandemic reinforce the importance of safe access to water, hygiene, and sanitation, both as the first barrier against virus transmission and as an essential factor during recovery to mitigate secondary impacts on livelihoods and community well-being. The clear need to ensure that water is available in sufficient quantity and quality for human and productive uses, together with controlling the effects of the excess of water, highlights its central role in the economy, and in particular in securing the well-being of vulnerable communities. Argentina is already taking key steps to close water security gaps. It is increasing access to water and sanitation services with a focus on the most vulnerable; defining planning instruments such as national water plans; reinforcing tools such as the national information system for water and sanitation, the national water network information system (SNIH) and management and results plans (PGRs) for public service companies; expanding the regulatory framework with law 27,520 on minimum budgets for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change; and creating new entities such as the national directorate of drinking water and sanitation (DNAPyS). This study builds on these efforts and recommends steps to take toward becoming a more water-secure country by 2030.
  • Publication
    Financial Protection of Critical Infrastructure Services
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-03) World Bank
    This report uses the term critical infrastructure to refer to all the aspects required to deliver the critical services (e.g., transport, health care, energy). Six sectors are widely classified as being critical: energy, transport, water, information and communications technologies, health care, and finance. Some economies include education and critical economic and manufacturing sectors within their definitions. The focus of this report is on the financial protection of critical infrastructure services. This focus complements existing, well-documented evidence and frameworks, including evidence collated by the World Bank30, about the operational and physical protection and the resilience of critical infrastructure assets, and about best practice in incorporating resilience within PPPs in infrastructure. The financial aspects of resilience of critical infrastructure services are not widely discussed in the existing literature, yet this is a critical component of overall resilience. A 2014 publication by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) titled Recommendations on Managing Critical Risks emphasized the role of financial preparedness in managing critical infrastructure risks to protect public finances and the fiscal position of a country. The 2018 and 2019 APEC Joint Ministerial Statements explicitly highlight the importance of quality and resilience, of the infrastructure’s strengths against climate and disasters, and of the role of financial protection in this context.
  • Publication
    Road Geohazard Risk Management Handbook
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-10) Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
    This handbook outlines an approach to proactively manage the risks of geohazards on roads, road users, and the people living near and affected by road. This handbook is structured to support road geohazard risk management sequentially and systematically: Part I, Framework for Road Geohazard Risk Management, helps users understand the framework for road geohazard risk management, introduces some basic concepts, and provides context to the overall handbook; Part II, Institutional Capacity and Coordination, covers the institutional arrangements that are necessary for the successful implementation of geohazard management; Part III, Systems Planning, covers the systems planning aspects, pertaining to the identification, assessment, and evaluation of risks, along with raising awareness of disasters; Part IV, Engineering and Design, deals with the engineered solutions to address geohazard risks, giving examples of different solutions to particular risk types; Part V, Operations and Maintenance, focuses on the operations and maintenance aspects of geohazard management whether the maintenance of previously engineered solutions or the nonengineered solutions available to mitigate the impacts of geohazard risks; Part VI, Contingency Planning, addresses contingency programming issues, such as postdisaster response and recovery, and the important issue of funding arrangements; and Part VII, References and Resource Materials, contains the reference list and additional online resources. Additionally, this handbook includes standard templates for terms of reference (ToRs) that can be adapted for technical assistance projects for road geohazard risk management (see Appendix A) and an operation manual (OM) for the practitioners involved with road geohazard risk management (see Appendix B).
  • Publication
    Greener Transport Connectivity for Eastern Partnership Countries
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06) World Bank
    The Eastern Partnership (EaP) is a joint policy initiative, which aims to deepen and strengthen relations between the European Union (EU) and its six Eastern neighbours. One of its four priority areas is stronger connectivity which includes the extension of the Trans European Transport Network (TEN-T) to the EaP region. On the policy front, it aims at achieving regulatory convergence across transport modes between member countries and with the EU to heighten the focus on energy efficiency and combat climate change. The EaP countries experienced a large shock to their economies following the end of the Soviet Union in 1989. At the same time, EaP countries are acutely aware of the need to converge with the EU in terms of energy efficiency, environment and climate change goals. The EU is currently formalising its European Green Deal, which is a roadmap for making the EU's economy sustainable. The objective of this study is to assist decision-makers in prioritizing strategic transport policies and infrastructure investments. It develops the evidence base and prioritisation framework for improving the transport sector of the region including improved energy efficiency and sustainability so that it is not left behind by advances in the EU. The study has also developed an online visualization tool to help policy makers explore and use the results of the modelling exercise.
  • Publication
    Technical Brief on Resilient Infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships: Policy, Contracting, and Finance
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-10-17) World Bank
    While all infrastructure public-private partnerships (PPPs) inevitably deal with financing, construction, regulatory, demand, and operational risks, among others, projects in disaster-prone regions must additionally develop commercially and technically viable solutions for managing disaster and climate risk. This technical brief highlights key considerations and good practices for structuring resilient infrastructure PPPs through Policy and Legislation; Contracting and Disaster Risk Allocation; Procurement, Monitoring, and Payment; and Insurance. The brief was developed based on country case studies on Japan, India, and Kenya as well as a literature review.
  • Publication
    No Broken Link: The Vulnerability of Telecommunication Infrastructure to Natural Hazards
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) Sandhu, Himmat Singh; Raja, Siddhartha
    The global economy is increasingly digital. The internet and other information and communicationtechnologies (ICTs) are changing the way individuals, businesses and governments operate. Theirresilience to natural disasters, and their ability to recover in the aftermath, is thus critical to the resilience of the economy. This chapter discusses the impact of climate events on various types of digital infrastructure. It highlights key considerations for governments and digital infrastructure owners to make their infrastructure more resilient, while maintaining affordability of services. We find that digital infrastructure is vulnerable to various climate risks, but that technology choices and network design can improve redundancy and resilience of networks, by design. Certain infrastructures warrant greater ex ante investment in their resilience considering their criticality in the broadband value chain (submarine cables or landing stations) while others could follow repair and recovery options (mobile network antennas, poles, and towers). We conclude with recommendations for the public and private sectors, noting that governments and sectorregulators can improve network resilience, and increase coordination given the distributedownership and governance models in the industry.