Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Project Development Funds (PDFs): Supporting Project Preparation to Structure Successful Public-private Partnerships (PPPs) - A Primer
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-03) World Bank Group
    Project development funds (PDFs) are dedicated vehicles that governments establish to systematically support the preparation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). The lack of adequate and consolidated resources to appropriately evaluate and prepare potential PPP projects is a key constraint faced by many PPP programs, and inhibits the ability of PPP projects to raise private investment. PDFs are generally established to address this challenge, by providing dedicated and centralized funding for PPP project preparation that is not subject to the constraints of typical government budgeting processes. PDFs have contributed to the successful implementation of PPP projects, which can serve to support the increased private investment that will be critical if the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are to be achieved. This primer on project development funds seeks to capture and distill lessons for public sector and other PPP practitioners related to how and why PDFs are established, and how best to enable them to contribute to the success of PPP programs. Through its review of PDF and other relevant experience, this Primer seeks to identify lessons learned and success factors that influence the design and operationalization of PDFs. It aims to paint a clear picture of how and why PDFs can support the development of PPP programs to assist policy makers in understanding whether a PDF can help to address their particular PPP program challenges. Where practitioners are developing a PDF, this Primer provides detailed information on PDF design features to assist them in establishing a PDF that will deliver on its objectives.
  • Publication
    Regulating the Digital Economy in Africa: Managing Old and New Risks to Economic Governance for Inclusive Opportunities
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-29) Begazo, Tania; Stinshoff, Clara; Niesten, Hannelore; Pop, Georgiana; Chen, Rong; Coelho, Gonçalo
    While digital technologies offer enormous benefits to the economy and society, they also expose citizens, firms, and markets to risks. This report focuses on understanding these risks to economic governance of the digital economy in African countries and proposes actions to mitigate them, enhancing the possibility of a virtuous cycle enabled by digital technologies. This report emphasizes risks of unfair and unbalanced market outcomes and misuse of personal and commercial data, complementing the World Bank report Digital Africa: Technological Transformation for Jobs, which focuses on closing the digital divide for households and enterprises. It analyzes the current context of digital market players and government actors along the digital value chain, including characteristics that could limit the development of inclusive, efficient, and competitive markets. The report distinguishes traditional and new risks to robust governance of the digital sector in Africa. Traditional risks affect a fundamental pillar of the digital economy: digital infrastructure that provides connectivity to access digital services. These traditional risks are related to the regulatory governance of digital infrastructure and channels through which the state obtains direct revenues from the sector: taxation and parafiscal fees on digital infrastructure and state-owned and state-linked enterprises. New risks are related to data and data-driven digital services that are essential to digital services applications that can expand the benefits of the digital economy. These new risks are related to unfair market outcomes because of weak competition and misuse of data. Finally, the report presents a framework to assess the level of risks to good economic governance in a country and recommendations to mitigate them.
  • Publication
    Digital Economy for Latin America and the Caribbean - Country Diagnostic: Ecuador
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-12) World Bank
    Ecuador has made significant progress on the adoption of digital technologies over the past decade. Despite these advances, millions of Ecuadorians, particularly those in rural areas, continue to be excluded from the digital economy because of affordability constraints, uneven infrastructure, and gaps in digital skills. Accelerating the adoption of digital technologies and addressing inequities in digital access can help Ecuador achieve its development goals. This report provides recommendations to support the effective implementation of Ecuador’s Digital Transformation Agenda 2022–2025. Universal internet access and digital transformation can help the country promote productivity and competitiveness in the non-extractive sectors, foster sustainable growth, create better jobs, and bridge inequalities, particularly the urban-rural divide as concerns the indigenous populations. The government’s commitment to digital transformation to address its development challenges is evident in the newly passed agenda, which includes digital infrastructure as axis number one. This report provides Ecuadorian authorities with recommendations for implementing the agenda across six pillars: digital infrastructure, digital public platforms, digital financial services, digital businesses, digital skills, and the trust environment. Key recommendations include legal and regulatory reforms to address affordability barriers to internet access, foster fintech and e-commerce ecosystems, and enhance cybersecurity. Ecuador’s digital transformation will also require investments in fixed and mobile infrastructure and international bandwidth, as well as in digital public platforms, to improve user experience and interoperability. Guiding student progress in digital skills from primary to higher education and digitizing government payments are also key reform areas.
  • Publication
    Identification for Development (ID4D): Diagnostic of ID Systems in Cameroon
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-23) World Bank
    An estimated 7.5 million Cameroonians—about one in three people in the country—do not have an official proof of identity such as a birth certificate or national ID card. More than one in three children have not had their birth registered and more than half do not have a birth certificate. An estimated 2.5 million adults do not have a national ID. In addition to being the objective of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Target 16.9— to “provide legal identity for all, including birth registration” by 2030—identification is a key enabler for individuals to exercise their rights and for progress towards many other SDG targets, such as financial and economic inclusion, social protection, gender equality, and safe and orderly migration. Women, people in rural areas, young people aged 18-24, people among the poorest 40 percent of the population, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) disproportionately suffer due to the lack of identity documents. Those without a birth certificate or a national ID are often unable to access basic services and economic opportunities, such as education, social assistance, financial services, or formal employment in.
  • Publication
    Integrating Resilience into Municipal Infrastructure Delivery in Kenya: Guidance Note for Municipal and County Engineer and Planners - Urban Resilient Infrastructure Guideline
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World Bank
    This Resilient Urban Infrastructure Guidelines forms one of a suite of reports developed by AECOM for the World Bank Group under the ‘Enhancement of Resilient Urban Planning and Infrastructure Investments in Urban Areas in Kenya’ assignment and constitutes Deliverable 2. This guidance note provides simple guidance for increasing the resilience of municipal infrastructure projects, and of communities, to physical risks, notably impacts of climate changes. This will increase the sustainability of investments under Second Kenya Urban Support Program (KUSP2), enabling them to perform their required function for their proposed design life, in a changing climate. It follows, roughly chronologically, the project development and design process. For the purposes of this note, resilient urban infrastructure is defined as infrastructure that is designed to deliver essential services now and in the future. It is prepared for and can withstand, adapt and recover positively from the physical (and climatic) shocks and stresses it may face over its lifetime. This is both with regards to the assets themselves, as well as the wider system that these assets are part of, which could include: the natural environment, the urban system, the operators, and the communities that interact with them.
  • Publication
    Enhancement of Resilient Urban Planning and Infrastructure Investments in Urban Areas in Kenya - Guidance Note on Mainstreaming Resilience into Urban Planning
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World Bank
    This ‘Guidance Note on Mainstreaming Resilience into Urban Planning’ forms one of a suite of reports developed by AECOM for the World Bank Group under the ‘Enhancement of Resilient Urban Planning and Infrastructure Investments in Urban Areas in Kenya’ assignment and constitutes Deliverable 7. Aimed at municipal-level planners in Kenya, this guidance note includes activities, considerations, and examples of good practice from within Kenya and other contexts to support municipal governments with mainstreaming resilience within the urban planning system. While the primary audience is municipal-level urban planners, this guidance note is likely to be helpful and relevant to other planning system stakeholders, including developers, local politicians, government ministries, departments and agencies, community leaders, other built environmental professionals, and the general public. Throughout, the Guidance Note focusses on mainstreaming resilience. In other words, this document is not, and should not be used as, a general ‘how-to’ guide for urban planning. While some advice is provided within it that may be more applicable beyond the topic of resilience and/or comprises basic good practice in urban planning, that text is nevertheless included as a means to build resilience as a primary outcome.
  • Publication
    Climate Resilient Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa Compendium Volume: A Focus on Infrastructure Project Design in Key Sectors
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-01) World Bank
    This Compendium Volume presents a series of guidance notes and more detailed complementary technical notes that offer practical insights in support of enhancing the climate resilience of infrastructure investment projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This first introductory chapter starts with an overview of the investment conditions and climatic context in the region, followed by a description of the scope of this Compendium Volume and individual notes, target audiences, and a roadmap for users of the contents covered in this Volume.
  • Publication
    Digital Economy for Latin America and the Caribbean - Country Diagnostic: Colombia
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-06-21) World Bank
    This report analyzes the current state of, challenges to, and opportunities for the development of a digital economy and proposes six policy priorities for the Government of Colombia (GoC). The report is based on the World Bank’s Digital Economy Assessment methodology, which analyzes the digital economy across six pillars or foundational elements: digital infrastructure, digital platforms, digital financial services, digital businesses, digital skills, and trust environment.
  • Publication
    Building Regulations in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Status Review of the Building Regulatory Environment
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-06-20) World Bank; Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
    Buildings should provide safe, comfortable, and healthy environments for people to live and work. They are an essential component of societies and economies, housing critical infrastructure necessary to keep governments and businesses in operation. At the same time, buildings are the first line of defense against natural hazards and climate impacts for the general population. The scope of this report is limited to regulatory frameworks in Sub-Saharan Africa countries, with a focus on buildings rather than on specialized construction types such as infrastructure for water, energy, transport, or communications. The report focuses on the technical aspects of the regulatory frameworks: market and financial solutions fall beyond its scope. Chapter 1 of the report describes the components, concepts, and desired outcomes of building regulatory frameworks. Chapter 2 explains the evolution of the building regulation environment in Sub-Saharan Africa and the region-specific hazards and risks that the regulatory environment must respond to. Chapter 3 presents data on the building regulatory environment for each country in the region. It covers all aspects of the building regulatory cycle: from the legally adopted building regulations that exist, to what they cover, to the implementation of regulations through compliance and enforcement mechanisms. Chapter 4 offers guidance on how to improve and update building regulatory frameworks. Chapter 5 contains region-specific conclusions and recommendations for strengthening building regulatory frameworks because of the analyses carried out in Chapters 3 and 4. Additionally, Appendix A summarizes key data for each country.
  • Publication
    Managing the Fiscal Implications of Public-Private Partnerships in a Sustainable and Resilient Manner: A Compendium of Good Practices and Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic
    (Washington, DC, 2023-03-22) World Bank
    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) can sometimes be perceived as a means for delivering infrastructure for free. A more nuanced but still inexact view is that they are a mechanism to overcome fiscal constraints. Some argue, perhaps rightly, that often governments enter PPP contracts without fully understanding their fiscal implications. These misconceptions lead to several challenges. There is evidence that fiscal sustainability is often overlooked or ignored by countries with PPP programs, with long-term fiscal implications the governments did not understand or manage well. Governments also struggle with perceptions that they are not fully transparent about the real, ultimate costs of PPP projects. This report aims to illustrate how to improve fiscal risk management and treatment of fiscal commitments and contingent liabilities (FCCL) arising from PPP projects, to build better Infrastructure post-COVID-19. It intends to be a resource for World Bank client countries, including low income and fragile economies, to design their fiscal PPP management frameworks in a viable way that helps them develop their PPP programs while maintaining medium-to-long-term fiscal sustainability and resilience. With that in mind, Volume I highlights and contextualizes the main findings from a set of case studies that assessed the PPP fiscal risk management framework in select countries, and synthesizes the observable and qualitative results in managing the impact of crises, in particular the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on that, it also explores how this crisis has affected PPP projects and overall PPP programs, and suggests improvements to FCCL management frameworks in order to strengthen the capacity of countries to continue with their PPP programs in a sustainable fiscal manner. Volume II contains the detailed case studies on which Volume I is based.