Other Infrastructure Study

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  • Publication
    Bangladesh Land Acquisition Diagnostic Review: Legal and Institutional Framework, Procedures and Practices - Analysis of the Challenges of and Proposals for Strengthening the Country’s Land Acquisition System
    (Washington, DC, 2022-08) World Bank
    Bangladesh has experienced a rapid pace of economic growth in the last two decades, with notable achievements across several social development parameters. To ensure sustained higher economic growth, the government of Bangladesh (GoB) aims to expand infrastructure related investment in the areas of strategic connectivity, industrialization, tourism development, and trade promotion, all of which require a significant amount of land. Age-old legal and institutional legacies and practices, issues pertaining to institutional capacity, and the lack of interoperability between departments involved in land administration make the overall land acquisition (LA) process extremely complicated and lengthy, with the scarcity of land making it even more challenging. The overall objective of the study was to assess the challenges and identify a mechanism for system strengthening and the scope of needed legal and institutional reform to improve the speed, accuracy, and accountability of the LA process. This report is presented in five chapters that discuss the study method, the analysis of the existing system and its challenges, measures to address the challenges, and the scope of possible legal and institutional reform. After introducing the study in this chapter, Chapter 2 discusses the country’s LA system and the process in practice. Chapter 3 describes the overall land administration in Bangladesh, including the method for transferring property rights, the creation and updating of khatians, and the complexity involved in the ownership decision process, one of the primary causes of delays in the payment of compensation. Chapter 4 presents the key challenges in the LA process, from the frustrations faced by IAs, who watch the timelines for their projects extended years longer than planned, to the worries and concerns of affected landowners waiting for compensation. Chapter 5 presents the proposals for improving and strengthening aspects of the LA process, including pertinent issues identified for possible land administration reform.
  • Publication
    Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin : Transport
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-04) Megevand, Carole; Dulal, Hari
    The Congo Basin is among the most poorly served areas in terms of transport infrastructure in the world, and it faces a challenging environment with dense tropical forests crisscrossed by numerous rivers that require construction of numerous bridges. Given such complexities, constructing transport infrastructure as well as properly maintaining it is certainly a key challenge for the Congo Basin countries. Recent studies indicate that investment required per kilometer of new roads is substantially higher than in other regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the same applies for maintenance. The physical capital of transport infrastructure is deteriorated in the Congo Basin. The ratio of classify roads in good and fair conditions range from 25 percent in Republic of Congo to 68 percent in the Central African Republic, which is globally lower than the average for low-income countries (LICs) and resource-rich countries. Other transportation assets (railways and river system) are also limited: the railway network is essentially a legacy of the colonial era and mainly used for mineral transportation, while the river system is basically only marginal.
  • Publication
    Zambia Wildlife Sector Policy : Situation Analysis and Recommendations for a Future Policy
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-05) Sichilongo, Mwape; Mulozi, Pamela; Mbewe, Biston; Machala, Chomba; Pavy, Jean-Michel
    Zambia is endowed with an abundance of natural resources that include, water, forests and wildlife. The country's wildlife resources are managed through government-supported National Parks and Game Management Areas (GMAs) and private sector game ranches. The main objective of this wildlife sector policy review is to consolidate the findings collected from an extensive bibliography published during the life of the current policy, and the analysis of key sector practitioners. The second objective is to analyze these findings with a view to formulating broad recommendations to inform the design of the new vision and new policy of the sector. This document aims to identify policy issues that would provide a basis for the creation of an enabling environment for the development of the wildlife sector as a growth sector according to the Sixth National Development Plan (SNDP) and the vision 2030. It contains five provisional priority recommendations that offer practical solutions and six strategic options which constitute policy objectives. In conclusion, an improvement of the policy framework could have a large impact on how people and wildlife relate and coexist in Zambia. This policy review confirmed that, while important policy measures are necessary, particularly for shared growth, the adoption of a forward looking wildlife policy and act will not be sufficient if it is not accompanied by unequivocal willingness on the part of Government to reorganize and strengthen Zambia Wildlife Authority's (ZAWA's) capacity and provide financing commensurate to its need.
  • Publication
    Benefit Sharing in Practice : Insights for REDD+ Initiatives
    (Program on Forests (PROFOR), Washington, DC, 2012-02) Chandrasekharan Behr, Diji; Mairena Cunningham, Eileen; Kajembe, George; Mbeyale, Gimbage; Nsita, Steve; Rosenbaum, Kenneth L.
    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+) has raised the profile of benefit sharing in the forest sector. Sharing benefits, however, is not a new concept. Previous work on benefit sharing (associated with intellectual property, forest and agriculture concessions, mining, and so forth) has focused on clarifying the concept and examining how benefit sharing could feed into broader development outcomes. Getting benefit sharing right in the context of REDD+ has a similar objective. The objective of this study is twofold. The first is to examine existing arrangements for sharing benefits and extract insights from existing community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) arrangements that involve sharing benefits, specifically insights regarding how benefits are determined, how beneficiaries are identified, and how the set-up is influencing the effectiveness of the arrangements. The second objective is to provide community perspective on benefit sharing and partnerships in the forest sector. This study examines nine partnership arrangements in three countries Nicaragua, Tanzania, and Uganda. The partnerships include five performance-based PES arrangements (of which two are focused on carbon). The remaining four partnerships involve sustainable management of forests for specific objectives (timber, ecotourism, wildlife conservation, and so forth). All the partnerships took several years to set up, and some have been under implementation for several years. For purposes of this study, benefit sharing or sharing of benefits refers to an intentional transfer of financial payments and payments in the form of goods and services to intended beneficiaries.
  • Publication
    Making Benefit Sharing Arrangements Work for Forest-dependent Communities : Overview of Insights for REDD+ Initiatives
    (Program on Forests (PROFOR), Washington, DC, 2012-02) Chandrasekharan Behr, Diji
    This overview paper positions the question of benefit sharing in the context of REDD plus. It shares findings from a cursory review of a sample of Readiness Preparation Proposals (RPP) for REDD plus submitted to the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). It deconstructs the concept of benefit sharing. It also provides a summary of the main findings from three recent studies on benefit sharing that were financed by the Program on Forests (PROFOR). The PROFOR studies build on existing research. They also use primary and secondary data collected from a literature review, key informant interviews, structured surveys, and case studies. The studies: a) explore the substantive legal issues and procedural options for identifying legitimate and intended beneficiaries in situations where rights are unclear; b) provide information and tools to assist policy makers and development partners to design and develop nationally appropriate arrangements for transferring REDD plus benefits; and c) provide the local partners' perspective on benefit sharing and the process involved in determining benefits and establishing arrangements for sharing the benefits.
  • Publication
    Making Benefit Sharing Arrangements Work for Forest-dependent Communities : Insights for REDD+ Initiatives
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012) PROFOR
    As donors pledge growing support for protecting and managing forests to address climate change, the question of how to pay tropical countries to reduce their emissions from deforestation and forest degradation assumes greater urgency. Depending on the detailed implementation of REDD plus at a national and international level, forest nations may be able to secure funding from a range of sources, including donors and multilateral funds (a funded approach) and the voluntary and compliance carbon markets (a carbon markets-based approach). These payments are supposed to act as financial incentives that will engender changes in behavior and policy frameworks, spur the development of appropriate institutional arrangements and needed technologies, and motivate both national and international coordination to achieve REDD plus objectives. These pages provide a brief synthesis of four papers financed by the Program on Forests (PROFOR). All four papers are included in a CD enclosed at the end of this booklet. The papers are: making benefit sharing arrangements work for forest-dependent people: overview of insights for REDD plus Initiative (Chandrasekharan Behr, 2012); identifying and working with beneficiaries when rights are unclear (Bruce, 2012); assessing options for effective mechanisms to share benefits (PwC, 2012); and benefit sharing in practice.
  • Publication
    Infrastructure, Environment, and Regional Development in South-Eastern Mongolia
    (Washington, DC, 2008) World Bank
    This report was written in 2008 in the wake of a World Bank mission to Mongolia in 2007. The team identified that the South Gobi region is poised for a major boom in economic activity, with a foundation based on planned development of mines of world class significance. The Mongolian Parliament is considering an greement with Ivanhoe Mines for the development of a copper and gold mine at Oyu Tolgoi, and a shareholder agreement that relates to proposed development of a coal mine at Tavan Tolgoi. Other proposed mines in the relatively near future include copper and molybdenum at Tsagaan Suvraga (TS) and export coal at Nariin Sukhait. It is likely that infrastructure development in the region will spur the development of additional mines and associated industries. The following discussion sets out the major infrastructure, environment, and regional development issued identified by the October mission of the World Bank.