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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-04) Megevand, Carole ; Dulal, Hari ; Braune, Loic ; Wekhamp, JohannaThe Congo Basin is among the most poorly served areas in terms of transport infrastructure in the world, and it faces a challenging environment with dense tropical forests crisscrossed by numerous rivers that require construction of numerous bridges. Given such complexities, constructing transport infrastructure as well as properly maintaining it is certainly a key challenge for the Congo Basin countries. Recent studies indicate that investment required per kilometer of new roads is substantially higher than in other regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the same applies for maintenance. The physical capital of transport infrastructure is deteriorated in the Congo Basin. The ratio of classify roads in good and fair conditions range from 25 percent in Republic of Congo to 68 percent in the Central African Republic, which is globally lower than the average for low-income countries (LICs) and resource-rich countries. Other transportation assets (railways and river system) are also limited: the railway network is essentially a legacy of the colonial era and mainly used for mineral transportation, while the river system is basically only marginal.
Making Benefit Sharing Arrangements Work for Forest-dependent Communities : Overview of Insights for REDD+ Initiatives(Program on Forests (PROFOR), Washington, DC, 2012-02) Chandrasekharan Behr, DijiThis overview paper positions the question of benefit sharing in the context of REDD plus. It shares findings from a cursory review of a sample of Readiness Preparation Proposals (RPP) for REDD plus submitted to the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). It deconstructs the concept of benefit sharing. It also provides a summary of the main findings from three recent studies on benefit sharing that were financed by the Program on Forests (PROFOR). The PROFOR studies build on existing research. They also use primary and secondary data collected from a literature review, key informant interviews, structured surveys, and case studies. The studies: a) explore the substantive legal issues and procedural options for identifying legitimate and intended beneficiaries in situations where rights are unclear; b) provide information and tools to assist policy makers and development partners to design and develop nationally appropriate arrangements for transferring REDD plus benefits; and c) provide the local partners' perspective on benefit sharing and the process involved in determining benefits and establishing arrangements for sharing the benefits.
Making Benefit Sharing Arrangements Work for Forest-dependent Communities : Insights for REDD+ Initiatives(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012) PROFORAs donors pledge growing support for protecting and managing forests to address climate change, the question of how to pay tropical countries to reduce their emissions from deforestation and forest degradation assumes greater urgency. Depending on the detailed implementation of REDD plus at a national and international level, forest nations may be able to secure funding from a range of sources, including donors and multilateral funds (a funded approach) and the voluntary and compliance carbon markets (a carbon markets-based approach). These payments are supposed to act as financial incentives that will engender changes in behavior and policy frameworks, spur the development of appropriate institutional arrangements and needed technologies, and motivate both national and international coordination to achieve REDD plus objectives. These pages provide a brief synthesis of four papers financed by the Program on Forests (PROFOR). All four papers are included in a CD enclosed at the end of this booklet. The papers are: making benefit sharing arrangements work for forest-dependent people: overview of insights for REDD plus Initiative (Chandrasekharan Behr, 2012); identifying and working with beneficiaries when rights are unclear (Bruce, 2012); assessing options for effective mechanisms to share benefits (PwC, 2012); and benefit sharing in practice.