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PublicationBangladesh Land Acquisition Diagnostic Review: Legal and Institutional Framework, Procedures and Practices - Analysis of the Challenges of and Proposals for Strengthening the Country’s Land Acquisition System(Washington, DC, 2022-08) World BankBangladesh has experienced a rapid pace of economic growth in the last two decades, with notable achievements across several social development parameters. To ensure sustained higher economic growth, the government of Bangladesh (GoB) aims to expand infrastructure related investment in the areas of strategic connectivity, industrialization, tourism development, and trade promotion, all of which require a significant amount of land. Age-old legal and institutional legacies and practices, issues pertaining to institutional capacity, and the lack of interoperability between departments involved in land administration make the overall land acquisition (LA) process extremely complicated and lengthy, with the scarcity of land making it even more challenging. The overall objective of the study was to assess the challenges and identify a mechanism for system strengthening and the scope of needed legal and institutional reform to improve the speed, accuracy, and accountability of the LA process. This report is presented in five chapters that discuss the study method, the analysis of the existing system and its challenges, measures to address the challenges, and the scope of possible legal and institutional reform. After introducing the study in this chapter, Chapter 2 discusses the country’s LA system and the process in practice. Chapter 3 describes the overall land administration in Bangladesh, including the method for transferring property rights, the creation and updating of khatians, and the complexity involved in the ownership decision process, one of the primary causes of delays in the payment of compensation. Chapter 4 presents the key challenges in the LA process, from the frustrations faced by IAs, who watch the timelines for their projects extended years longer than planned, to the worries and concerns of affected landowners waiting for compensation. Chapter 5 presents the proposals for improving and strengthening aspects of the LA process, including pertinent issues identified for possible land administration reform. PublicationSupport to National Capacity Development: Framework for Improving Water and Sanitation Services in Bangladesh(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-12-23) World BankThe objective of this World Bank technical assistance has been to support the Government of Bangladesh’s (GoB) national capacity development framework for improving water and sanitation services (WSS) in Bangladesh, focusing on demand-responsive peer-to-peer or horizontal learning processes and improve horizontal accountability communication and monitoring systems to track progress in the sector. This technical assistance is in line with the World Bank country assistance strategy (CAS) which seeks to support the GoB target of ensuring safe drinking water and sanitation for all. It has contributed to strengthening the long-term capacity of the government, in particular the union Parishad (UP) which is responsible for ensuring water and sanitation services for all in Bangladesh. PublicationPrivate Sector Delivery of Rural Piped Water Services in Bangladesh: A Review of Experience, 2003-2015(Washington, DC, 2015-08) World BankThis note explores the Bangladesh experience in implementing the widespread use of a private operator model for building and operating rural piped water schemes. Since the early 1990s, the World Bank has, through a series of development projects, designed, piloted, and attempted to scale up use of the model as a mechanisms to address the very real issues of arsenic contamination and delivery at scale. The latest of these projects is still in implementation. The experience with these projects to date has been disappointing, and while a limited number of schemes are still in operation, the model has not been replicated in a large number of communities as intended and has not proved to be particularly sustainable. Over this same period, the government and other development partners also have been using alternative methods to deliver the same kinds of services in rural areas. Some of these efforts seem to have been modestly successful. However, much of the evidence about the performance of these other models is anecdotal and there has been little rigorous analysis to compare the performance of these different models with the private sponsor approach. This paper attempts to do this on the basis of a desk review of existing World Bank literature, including project documents and research reports, coupled with interviews with key stakeholders and World Bank staff. The first section of the paper provides an overview of the rationale and key issues associated with efforts to scale up a private operator model in Bangladesh. The second section reviews government efforts and those of its other development partners, to use a more traditional mode of service provision, involving community management. The third, fourth, and fifth sections review efforts by the government and the World Bank to design, test, and scale up a private operator model for service provision. A sixth section reviews some of the international research that provides insights into the use of such models in other countries and sectors. The paper ends with tentative conclusions about the experience in Bangladesh, lessons learned, and several options for further analysis. PublicationBest Practice Spectrum Renewal and Pricing : A Review of International Best Practice and the Lessons for the Government of Bangladesh(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-06-02) Friend, GrahamThe 15 year licenses of four mobile operators in Bangladesh; Grameenphone, Banglalink, Robi, and Citycell are due to expire in November 2011. The remaining two other mobile operators, state owned Teletalk and Airtel, were issued licenses in 2004 and 2005 and these are not due for renewal until 2019 and 2020 respectively. The World Bank has asked Coleago Consulting Limited (Coleago) to prepare a report on international best practice for spectrum renewal and pricing and to analyze the Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) proposals in light of best practice. The mobile industry has changed dramatically in the intervening years and so license renewal provides regulators with the opportunity to update relevant regulation to better align the licensing framework and license conditions with the mobile industry of today and to accommodate future developments. In this report the author have surveyed a number of jurisdictions and examined both successful and not so successful spectrum renewal processes in order to derive a set of international principles of best practice for spectrum renewal and pricing. In doing so the author have also sought to identify best regulatory practice in a broader sense as successful spectrum renewal processes depend, in part, on being conducted within a robust and effective overall regulatory regime. This report covers: the process of spectrum renewal including both administered and market based approaches; and alternative methods for pricing spectrum. PublicationOperational Risk Assessment (ORA) for Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) in Bangladesh : Final Implementation Plan(Washington, DC, 2009-10) World BankIn April, 2008 the World Bank and the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) commenced a study with the following objectives: (i) to assess fiduciary and operational risks in LGED's management of projects, assets and other resources, and in the Local Government Division (LGD), Ministry Of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives' oversight function; (ii) to evaluate the efficacy of external review of decision-making by LGED and the LGD; and (iii) to identify options for future monitoring of operational risks in LGED and the LGD, and (iv) to prioritize options which are realistic and available to effectively minimize the major operational risks identified. This report addresses the last of these objectives. It is based on discussions in Dhaka 14-20 March with senior LGED staff the Operational Risk Assessment (ORA) team leader, and follow-up work by LGED staff through March 30. The report identifies and categorizes three different types of risks. The first type includes risks that LGED has the authority to take the necessary actions to address, with support from development partners and routine budgetary spending and staffing authorizations needed from other agencies. The second type includes risks that can only be addressed by LGED in partnership with one or more other organizations. In other words, it can initiate some parts, but will also need key partners to make necessary decisions to carry out the recommended actions. Although initial work on these can begin right away, successful implementation is expected to take longer than addressing the first type of risks. The third type includes risks that stem from the external environment in which LGED operates. LGED cannot take any direct action to address them. Yet, based on a full understanding of the nature of the risk, LGED may be able to take indirect actions to mitigate the relevant operational and fiduciary risks to LGED's operations and reputation. These are more complex than the first two types, and may take more time to address. Once finalized, the report will be presented and discussed at the ORA Dissemination Workshop tentatively scheduled for July, 2009, with participants from Government, civil society, and international partner organizations. Following approval by the Local Government Division, Ministry Of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives, LGED will begin implementing the risk mitigating measures according to the attached schedule.